14 FAH-1 H-300
RECEIPT AND STORAGE
14 FAH-1 H-310
RECEIPT AND STORAGE PROCEDURES Worldwide
(Office of Origin: A/LM)
14 FAH 311 SCOPE
a. This subchapter 14 FAH-1 H-310 provides the procedures for managing personal property during the receipt functions and while the property is in storage at U.S. Government controlled space worldwide. The heading "State/USAID" applies to USAID at foreign locations only and Department of State worldwide both domestic and foreign. If marked as "State only" it does not apply to USAID and applies to State both domestic and foreign locations. If marked as "Domestic State only" that section applies only to the Department of State operations located in the U.S. and not to foreign locations.
b. During recent attacks on U.S. facilities, intruders used unsecured mission property as improvised weapons, i.e. weapons of opportunity. To ensure the safety of mission personnel and property, employees must properly secure and store all materials that can be used as improvised weapons, including, but not limited to, flammable liquids, paint, hand tools, power tools, rebar, rigid conduit, loose scaffolding, and other loose construction materials or equipment. Such property must be stored as securely as possible when not in use to prevent access from unauthorized persons.
c. State only: This policy covers, in part, U.S. Department of State personal property provided to contractors (government-furnished property (GFP)) and contractor acquired property (CAP), when the U.S. Government holds title. See the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 48 CFR 45.000 and the property clause at 48 CFR 52.245-1 that contractors must follow for U.S. Government owned or leased property held by the contractor.
d. State only: State also provides GFP to grantees. Governing policies and regulations for U.S. Government furnished personal property to grantees are available from the Federal Assistance Division, Office of the Procurement Executive (A/OPE/FA) Federal Grant Regulations SharePoint site.
14 FAH-1 H-312 RECEIVING and Acceptance
a. Receiving is an important function in the property management lifecycle. Property is delivered because posts/bureaus initiated an earlier action to acquire the property. To complete the acquisition process, posts/bureaus must both "inspect" and document "acceptance", including property ordered with a purchase card, as appropriate (reference "Acceptance" at 48 CFR 46.501 and 14 FAH-2 H-523.3).
b. The function of “acceptance” or "rejection" of goods (property) and services on behalf of the U.S. government is an inherently governmental function that must be performed by U.S. Government employee receiving official. Additionally, acceptance must be performed in a timely manner so that the U.S. Government can make payment to the vendor for “acceptable” items within the timeframes that the Prompt Payment Act (31 U.S.C. 3901 through 31 U.S.C. 3907) allows without incurring interest penalties and still obtain any discounts allowed.
c. Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) 48 CFR 2.101 states "Inspection means examining and testing supplies or services (including, when appropriate, raw materials, components, and intermediate assemblies) to determine whether they conform to contract requirements."
d. 31 U.S.C. 3901 requires a “payment due date” and the date that any late payment interest penalty must begin to accrue as the later of the:
(1) Receipt of a “proper invoice”; or
(2) The 7th day after date on which property is actually delivered; unless:
(a) The agency has actually accepted such property before such 7th day; or
(b) The contract specifies a longer acceptance period to afford the agency a practicable opportunity to inspect and test the property furnished.
e. No interest penalty is required on a payment due to a valid dispute or for a period during which the dispute is being resolved. See 31 U.S.C. 3901 through 3907 and 5 CFR 1315, “Prompt Payment” implementing government wide regulations. Also, the U.S. Department of Treasury maintains a prompt payment Internet site that provides the applicable interest rates and other tools.
f. U.S. Government receiving is performed by Department of State-designated receiving officials at central receiving locations at foreign posts and domestic bureaus/offices. Receiving also occurs by:
(2) Grants officers who administer grants, and
(3) U.S. Government employee credit purchase card holders in accordance with their delegated authorities.
g. A U.S. Government employee must be designated in writing (see 14 FAM 413.1) to serve as the receiving official. The accountable property officer (APO) must establish detailed written procedures that address the receiving, inspection and acceptance functions. The written procedures must then be provided to the U.S. Government employees designated to perform the receiving functions (i.e. receiving official). Generally, the position description of the receiving official contains the written designation of the receiving responsibility. In instances where an employee is occasionally assigned to receive, e.g. in emergencies, and authorization does not exist in the form of a position description, the employee must be given a memorandum authorizing him or her to receive and accept property on behalf of the U.S. Government. Employees without written authorization must not be permitted to sign for acceptance of property deliveries.
h. If a FSN is direct hired or hired under a personal services agreement (22 U.S.C. 2669(c) and 22 U.S.C. 2669(n)) then the post management officer (PMO) may designate in writing the FSN as a receiving official. The receiving official could be a full-time equivalent (FTE); a when actually employed (WAE) retired Foreign Service officer or former Civil Service employee; a temporary hire; or a personal services contractor (PSC) hired under a domestic personal services contract or post issued personal services agreement (PSA). The person could also be locally employed staff (LES) at post. Contractors (other than PSCs) are not eligible to sign as "acceptance" of goods (personal property) or services for the U.S. Government. However they may support the U.S. Government employee designated in writing as the receiving official by performing inspection tasks as to quantity, quality and condition; subject to appropriate oversight, spot inspection and review by a U.S. Government employee in order to make the acceptance decision.
i. All incoming shipments, must be processed within 7 calendar days and a weekly written status report must be provided to the APO on all material remaining in the receiving area beyond the 7 calendar days.
j. If a hazardous commodity is received, a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) or Safety Data Sheet (SDS) must accompany the product explaining what the material is, its health and physical hazards, how to handle it safely, and what should be done in the event of a spill or other accident. For further guidance refer to 14 FAH-1 H-313.2-15, Hazardous Materials.
k. Domestic State only: Receiving authorization: Custodial officers and accountable property officers (APOs) are authorized to sign for incoming personal property, including program property. In a building with multiple custodial officers the APO may designate a primary custodial officer with authority to sign for deliveries destined for multiple areas in the building. U.S. Government contractors (other than PSCs) are not authorized to sign "acceptance" for personal property, including program property.
14 FAH-1 H-312.1 Receiving Areas
To the extent feasible, the receiving activity location must be centralized (see 14 FAM 413.2). Central receiving provides more effective control of U.S. Government property through the efficient use of qualified receiving personnel. The senior receiving official must be located in the centralized receiving area. Enforcing procedures to ensure that deliveries are properly documented upon "acceptance" is more effective with centralized receiving.
14 FAH-1 H-312.1-1 Alternate Receiving Area
The designation of a central receiving area does not preclude inspection and "acceptance" at other locations when advantageous to the U.S. Government. When diversified activities make total centralization of receiving activities impractical, alternate receiving areas may exist at the most beneficial locations. The accountable property officer (APO) may elect to have smaller packages delivered to the general services office instead of to the central receiving area. However, in those instances, there should be a minimum number of alternate sites, and as many shipments as practicable should go to the central receiving area.
14 FAH-1 H-312.1-2 One Time Receiving
If it is necessary that delivery occur on a one time basis, to a location that is not one of the normal alternate receiving areas (e.g., delivery of a generator directly to a residence), the accountable property officer (APO) must ensure that the shipment is properly received and "acceptance" signed for, and that the appropriate receiving and inspection document is prepared and distributed (see 14 FAM 413.5).
14 FAH-1 H-312.2 Receiving Responsibility
14 FAH-1 H-312.2-1 Central Receiving Area
To ensure effective control and protection of all incoming property, the accountable property officer (APO) designates, in writing, a specific U.S. Government employee to serve as the primary receiving official who will function in the main receiving area. The function of the receiving official is to inspect and after acceptance, sign for incoming property using the Integrated Logistics Management System (ILMS) Asset Management (AM) Final Receipt Module. If there is only one receiving official, provision must be made for an alternate to serve in the receiving official's absence. The alternate must inspect and after acceptance sign for shipments only in the absence of the primary receiving official.
14 FAH-1 H-312.2-2 Alternate Receiving Area
When establishing an alternate receiving area, the accountable property officer (APO) must coordinate with the head of the office where the alternate receiving area is located to designate an employee in that office to function as a receiving official. Provision must also exist for an alternate to serve in that employee's absence. The APO must then provide the receiving official with a memorandum authorizing him or her to perform the receiving duties. The receiving official must receive all incoming property partial or in full through the Integrated Logistics Management System (ILMS) Asset Management (AM) Final Receipt Module. The accountable property officer (APO) must provide a set of written instructions on how these duties should be performed (e.g., required time frame for processing incoming deliveries, how to prepare receiving reports, receiving report copy distribution, and how to report discrepancies) must also be provided.
14 FAH-1 H-312.3 Receiving Files
The control of documents used in the receiving process is essential to effective receiving operations. Pending order files of acquisition documents (copies of purchase orders, contracts, transfer documents, or requisitions) must be established at each receiving area. Copies of all advance bills of lading should also be forwarded to the receiving area. As shipments are received and each acquisition document is completed (i.e., receiving reports are on file confirming that all items listed on the acquisition document have been received, or actions on damaged or missing property have been completed), all documents in that file are transferred to a completed file. If an alternate receiving area has been established, the completed receiving files for the alternate receiving area must be filed into the central receiving area’s completed files.
14 FAH-1 H-312.3-1 Receiving File Documents
a. It is the responsibility of the accountable property officer (APO) that written procedures ensure that copies of requisitions, purchase orders, shipping notices, bills of lading, and any other shipment related documents are sent to the appropriate receiving area so that a "due in" file can be established. Should the appropriate receiving official not receive copies of these documents, receiving official will not know what or how much property to expect. If all receiving reports are to be prepared at the central receiving area, the central receiving area must also receive a copy of the acquisition document for shipments consigned to the alternate receiving area.
b. Written instructions must be made available to the receiving official to provide guidance for those times when an acquisition document may not reach the receiving area.
14 FAH-1 H-312.3-2 Establishing Files
A separate folder must exist for each acquisition document (and related shipping documents) and the folders filed in numerical order, in accordance with the acquisition document number, by fiscal year.
14 FAH-1 H-312.3-3 Receiving Reports
The receipt of all property partial or in full at post or bureaus/offices must be received through the Integrated Logistics Management System (ILMS) Asset Management (AM) final receipt module. This will ensure Form DS-127, Receiving and Inspection Report, will be auto created in ILMS.
14 FAH-1 H-312.3-4 Completed Files
Completed centralized receiving files should be established and maintained in the central receiving office and, when delivery is complete, the pending file is transferred to the completed files. The receiving official in the receiving area should forward complete copies to the central receiving area for permanent filing. A completed file may be disposed of three years after the final delivery to the order has been made.
14 FAH-1 H-312.3-5 File Reconciliation
The receiving official must inform the procurement office of any pending orders, or partial orders, in the "due in" file for which the delivery date has already passed. The status of these orders should be researched and resolved.
14 FAH-1 H-312.4 Receiving Actions
14 FAH-1 H-312.4-1 Checking the Seal
The receiving official must ensure upon the arrival of a sealed container (e.g., box, carton, etc.) that the seal is verified as not to have been tampered with, the condition of the item must be checked, and the serial number verified before the carrier is opened. If the seal is broken, missing, shows evidence of having been tampered with, or the serial number does not agree with that listed on transportation documents, the receiving official must make a notation on Form DS-127, Receiving and Inspection Report, and, in the case of sensitive/classified cargo, the post security officer notified.
14 FAH-1 H-312.4-2 Unloading
a. The method of entry into the carrier (see example loading dock equipment below) depends upon the type of carrier, type of material received, and the physical characteristics of the receiving area. If unloading occurs at a warehouse platform, a bridge plate or some type of mechanical or hydraulic dock leveler may be used to move material handling equipment into the carrier. If no raised platform exists, a portable platform ramp may be used to move material handling equipment into the carrier. However, if material handling equipment is to enter the truck, the floor strength of the truck must be checked to ensure that the floor can support the weight of the equipment and the load.
b. When containers are fully packed with quantities indicated on the outside, they need not be opened during the inspection process, unless there is evidence of having been tampered with, or of damage. If large quantities of the same kinds of items are to be stored in a palletized (to place on pallets) bulk storage area, it is generally wise to palletize these items while they are still in the carrier or as they are offloaded from the carrier.
c. Immediately report ruptured or damaged containers of hazardous supply items to the warehouse supervisor in order to insure proper handling and to avoid any risk of injury to personnel. If containers leak flammable liquids, they must be safeguarded to prevent the creation of a serious fire hazard.
Example: Loading dock equipment
Example: dock leveler
14 FAH-1 H-312.4-3 Delivery Inspection of Property
a. Prior to receiving official signing for delivery, each shipment must be physically checked against the incoming transportation documents (e.g., freight bill, bill of lading, etc.), to verify receipt of the correct number of pieces, and must be inspected for external damage. This action should occur concurrently with the unloading operation. If a U.S. Government consolidation or freight-forwarding contractor initially received a shipment, the signature of the U.S. Government employee designated as the receiving official acknowledges initial receipt on behalf of the U.S. Government. Therefore, all shipments must be accurately checked to protect fully the interests of the U.S. Government to prevent the U.S. Government from incurring liability for items that are missing, damaged or do not meet quality requirements.
b. The following steps should be taken when inspecting material:
(1) Remove any packing slips attached to containers;
(2) Check the packing slip and shipping document(s) for a purchase order number, contract number, requisition number, or any number that can be matched against the acquisition document in the "due-in" file;
(3) Count the number of pieces listed on the carrier's transportation document and compare that count with the pieces unloaded from the carrier. If the count agrees, sign for the shipment and release the carrier;
(4) If a chemical product, ensure that a material safety data sheet (MSDS) or safety data sheet (SDS) is provided and a copy is directed to the proper location identified for the facility in compliance with the hazard communication program;
(5) In cases where the total quantity of pieces tallied on the shipment does not match the quantity the shipping document lists, bill of lading, and/or packing list covering the shipment, the pieces should be recounted before indicating the quantity actually received;
(6) External damage can be caused by mishandling, cargo shifting, dropping, tampering, or from natural causes (rain, etc.). Where external damage is evident, containers (packages, cartons, cases, etc.) should be opened to determine the extent of the damage or shortage. It is preferable that this inspection be performed in the presence of the carrier's or shipper's representative. List the specific details of the damage on the carrier's copy and the receiving office's copy of the delivery document. If damage to technical equipment or parts is suspected, a technician should examine the property. If possible, this should occur before the carrier's delivery document is signed. Any damaged container should remain at the receiving location premises until an agreement with the shipper or carrier has been reached. Digital photographs are extremely valuable and should be used when details of the discrepancy cannot be adequately explained in writing or can be more fully supported by such evidence. The date that the photographs were taken, along with the delivery document number and carrier identification, should be noted on the back of the photographs;
(7) The extent of any discrepancies discovered, such as damage or shortage, must be noted on the carrier's copy and receiving office’s copy of the transportation document that is then signed and dated by the receiving official. If space is lacking on the transportation document, include the statement ”SEE REVERSE SIDE,” on the front, and provide the information in detail on the reverse. The carrier operator must initial any discrepancy notations on the receiving office copy. Failure to do so may jeopardize the right to recovery from the carrier in the event it is determined that damage was sustained in transit;
(8) Verify that all items delivered are addressed correctly;
(9) If it is not possible to make an internal inspection while the carrier waits, include the statement, "Complete acceptance of this shipment depends on an internal inspection," on the carrier's copy and the receiving office copy of the delivery document; and
(10) The receipt of all personal and program property must be received utilizing the Integrated Logistics Management (ILMS) Asset Management (AM) Final Receipt module. This will ensure an asset record and an automated DS-127 receiving and inspection report are created.
14 FAH-1 H-312.4-4 Concealed Shortage or Damage
In instances where concealed loss or damage is not discovered until after the shipment has been accepted, the carrier's agent should be notified immediately, and be given an opportunity to inspect the property. Oral notification should be confirmed, in writing, listing the items in question and indicating any identifying markings. The carrier must be provided with copies of the delivery documents, and should be requested to inspect the property. A copy of the carrier's inspection report is retained in the shipping office files.
14 FAH-1 H-312.4-5 Holding Damaged Property
Damaged property should not be processed and recorded on property records, but must be segregated and held by the warehouse staff for disposition, pending final determination of liability. Warehouse personnel should exercise the same care of such property as given to U.S. Government property, until the carrier or other responsible party disposes of the property. All damaged property returned to the carrier, or otherwise disposed of in accordance with instructions from the carrier or other responsible party, must be properly documented to record actions taken.
14 FAH-1 H-312.5 Inspection
14 FAH-1 H-312.5-1 General Inspection
a. Immediately after delivery has been made, material received must be completely checked against the covering acquisition document and the packing list to verify commodity, quantity, quality and condition. Expendable supply items received in unopened cartons, with the quantity clearly marked on the outside, need not be opened, unless there is evidence of having been tampered with or of damage. Otherwise, cartons should be opened and inspected. Appliances should be tested to ensure they operate normally.
b. Check the packing list to make certain that everything shipped has been received.
c. If inspection reveals discrepancies including damages, overages, or items that do not meet specifications (including counterfeit items) the property in question should be set aside until disposition instructions are received from the accountable property officer (APO).
14 FAH-1 H-312.5-2 Delayed Inspection
If inspection is not immediately possible, the material should be placed in a holding area near the receiving area until receiving action can be accomplished. Deliveries in the holding area should be inspected and received within 3 working days. In this instance, the shipment should be kept intact, completely separated from other material, and protected from pilfering. If possible, the holding area should be a secured area.
14 FAH-1 H-312.5-3 Special Inspection Requirements
When shipments contain property that may require a specialized inspection to be performed, if necessary, the receiving official should arrange for a prompt inspection by a qualified technical expert. In these instances, the receiving official should sign the receiving report as "acceptance" once the appropriate tests have verified the technical requirements have been met. Documentation of the test(s) performed and the actual results must be provided by the technical expert. Examples include aircraft fasteners that must be to a certain strength before breaking and are controlled by manufacturer lot number, or ammunition that must have certain levels of power or characteristics when actually fired.
14 FAH-1 H-312.5-4 Purchase Card Purchases
a. Individuals making purchase card or petty cash purchases perform the initial inspection at the time the purchase is made at a vendor site. Otherwise if delivery is required the property should be processed through the central receiving location or alternate delivery site as appropriate.
b. Information on discrepancies on credit card purchase must be provided to the purchase cardholder to attempt to resolve the dispute directly with the vendor. If attempts to resolve a charge with a vendor are not successful, the cardholder must complete a Citibank dispute form and directly notify Citibank.
c. All disputes unresolved at the supplier, cardholder level must be submitted to Citibank within 60 calendar days from the date that the charge(s) first appeared on the cardholder statement of account. After 60 days, the right to dispute a charge may be relinquished. Sales tax, if incurred, is not considered a disputable charge. The cardholder must provide a copy of the dispute for the designated billing office (DBO - FMO).
d. The cardholder must respond promptly to Citibank requests for additional information or completion of an affidavit for the disputed charge and provide to Citibank. Late submission of this information may result in lost rights under the dispute process.
e. Cardholders must retain:
(1) A copy of the dispute transmittal showing it was successfully received by Citibank; and
(2) A copy of the dispute form and the affidavit (if applicable) in the file for a period of 3 years.
f. The cardholder must track any credits resulting from a dispute on future statements and coordinate closely with designated billing office. If the credit does not appear on the statement in a timely fashion, the cardholder must contact Citibank directly.
14 FAH-1 H-312.5-5 Cash on Delivery Shipments
Cash on delivery (C.O.D.) shipments may be received and paid for before the examination and any necessary quality, quantity, or condition adjustments may be settled later with the vendor. However, when receiving such shipments, a statement must be in writing on the delivery document to the effect that the receipt is subject to inspection and verification.
14 FAH-1 H-312.6 Reporting Receipts
14 FAH-1 H-312.6-1 Receiving Document
a. So that a working document is available for the completion of purchase or requisition files, payment of invoices, and the updating of property records, reports on the quantity and condition of all property received (including damaged or otherwise unusable property) must be prepared. The report is prepared in English, the item cost indicated in U.S. currency, and the report signed by the receiving official authorized to determine "acceptance" of the property on behalf of the U.S. Government. Reports must be prepared for individual items, not for sets, such as a "set of furniture." Form DS-127, Receiving and Inspection Report, is the Department and USAID's official document for recording the receipt and acceptance of property.
b. When a total property order is received either partial or in full, it must be received using the Integrated Logistics Management System (ILMS) Asset Management (AM) final receipt module.
c. USAID only: USAID missions must use the ILMS as the approved personal property management system. At any mission that ILMS has not been deployed, BARSCAN (the USAID predecessor personal property management system may be used) until such time as ILMS is deployed at that respective USAID mission.
14 FAH-1 H-312.6-2 Receiving and Inspection Report Criteria
a. Because of the need for different offices to use Form DS-127, Receiving and Inspection Report, as an action document, the report must be prepared in a way that will service all action offices. For example, if property ordered on separate acquisition documents is delivered in the same shipment, a separate Form DS-127 must be prepared for each acquisition document.
b. When creating receiving reports:
(1) Information from the acquisition document can be used for proper nomenclature and descriptive data;
(2) Do not combine items from more than one acquisition document on a single report;
(3) Do not include property received on different days on a single report. The exact date of receipt must be reported;
(4) Do not mix property that belongs to more than one U.S. Government agency on a single report. If quantities are commingled on the same report, the property records official cannot identify ownership; and
(5) Do not mix expendable and nonexpendable property on a single report.
14 FAH-1 H-312.6-3 Prompt Payment
The receiving document must be executed promptly in accordance with the time frames of the prompt payment act, and immediately furnished to the designated payment office. Once the property is accepted and signed for, the vendor is free to submit an invoice for payment. The paying office's authority for paying the invoice is the receiving and inspection report (i.e. completed and signed Form DS-127). Therefore, it is important that little time elapse between the signing for property acceptance and the processing of Form DS-127. For items received by the U.S. Despatch Agent (USDA), payment is due to the contractor based on the USDA receipt, rather than receipt of the item(s) at the post.
14 FAH-1 H-312.6-4 Partial and Late Deliveries
a. When items are received late beyond the terms of the acquisition, especially under a contract, work with the contracting officer and acquiring organization to determine if partial delivery is acceptable and if consideration for late delivery should be obtained. This is a business decision that should be made based on the facts and circumstances.
b. The U.S. Government has the right to consideration for late delivery. Property that is delivered with a minor deviation from the schedule with no adverse effect to U.S. Government operations may not be worth the time it would take to negotiate consideration. If delivery or performance is critical to mission success, the contracting officer should consider the addition of deductions or liquidated damages to compensate the U.S. Government for delays.
c. If partial deliveries are received at various times, several receiving reports may be prepared for items on a single acquisition document. Since there is a need to add accepted property to the property records as soon as possible, and an obligation to pay the a valid invoice promptly, receiving reports must also be prepared for partial deliveries as they are received. However, authorized receiving official approving "acceptance" of partial deliveries must remain cautious of improper product substitution or charging for items not delivered.
14 FAH-1 H-312.7 ILMS Receiving Process
Use the Integrated Logistics Management System (ILMS) to generate the DS-127, Receiving and Inspection Report. At a minimum, the data included on such a report must include:
(1) Consignor and/or contractor;
(2) Purchase order/requisition/transfer document/contract/or job number;
(3) Ordering document funds data (when appropriate);
(4) Stock number (when appropriate);
(6) Quantity received by line;
(7) Unit of issue;
(8) Unit price;
(9) Total cost by line;
(10) Serial numbers of items, if applicable;
(11) Certification of "acceptance" by the U.S. Government;
(12) Signature of authorized U.S. Government employee receiving official performing "acceptance"; and
(13) Date of receipt.
14 FAH-1 H-312.7-1 ILMS Receiving Reports
14 FAH-1 H-312.7-1(A) ILMS General Receiving Process
a. Any deviations from the acquisition document copy (i.e., ILMS-Ariba) in the receiving file from what was actually received must be noted on the receiving report. All property received in a damaged condition must also be noted on the report.
b. In addition to the description, all identifying numbers (manufacturer stock and/ or part numbers, model numbers, serial numbers, and U.S. Government barcode tag numbers) must be included on the report for accountable property contained in 14 FAM 411.4.
c. When they can be identified, transportation charges must be included on the receiving report. If possible, they should be broken down by line, and listed as a separate item under each line.
NOTE: Transportation cost, purchase cost, installation cost and any other cost to get the property to its place and set up for first use all become part of the "acquisition cost" which is often used to determine Department accountable property and if the property meets the Department capitalization criteria. See 14 FAM 411.4 definitions for acquisition cost and accountable property.
d. Reference the ILMS tutorials for completing the Form DS-127, Receiving and Inspection Report through the final receipt process.
14 FAH-1 H-312.7-1(B) Form DS-127 Distribution Using ILMS
a. The distribution of the Form DS-127, Receiving and Inspection Report is an automated process in ILMS. At a minimum, distribute copies of Form DS-127, Receiving and Inspection Report, as follows:
(1) Send the original copy to the accountable property officer (APO) for initials and subsequently for the file to support the property records. The APO reviews the report when received to determine whether discrepancies (shortages, overages, or damages) exist and were properly reported;
(2) Send one copy to the budget and fiscal office or USAID controller, as appropriate. Each agency official will direct the distribution of his or her own agency reports;
(3) Place one copy in the receiving office files; and
(4) For USAID security property, send one copy to SEC/PSP: Picture Captions.
c. Domestic State only: The custodial officer (CO) distributes copies of Form DS-127 as follows:
(1) Copy to the Logistics Management Office (A/OPE/AQM);
(2) Copy to the APO; and
(3) A copy is attached to the acquisition document and retained as part of the "receipt, inspection or acceptance" records. For applicable records retention requirements, see National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), General Records Schedule 1.1: "Financial Management and Report Records" item 011 Procuring goods and services; item 030 Property, plant and equipment (PP&E) and other assets account; or item 040 Cost accounting for stores, inventory, and materials. The General Records Schedules contain the various disposition instruction timeframes for these records which can vary significantly from "destroy 2 years after asset is disposed of" or "destroy 6 years after final payment" depending on the type of property (i.e. materials, capitalized personal property, etc).
14 FAH-1 H-312.8 Actions After Receiving
a. After completing the receiving action, additional actions are necessary. Label incoming accountable property with the Department barcode number identification as appropriate. See 14 FAM 414.1 for accountability including program property and 14 FAM 411.4 definitions for accountable property and acquisition cost. Exclude leased property which should not be labeled with agency barcode number identification.
b. Review property to identify if hazardous or special storage requirements are necessary.
c. Review property shelf life to ensure assets with a shelf life are utilized or processed for disposition prior to the shelf life expiration date or extended shelf life determination, and that this is properly recorded. See 41 CFR 101-27.201 for establishment of controls for shelf life items to minimize loss and ensure maximum use prior to deterioration. In order to assure maximum use of shelf life items, the receiving official must:
(1) Identify shelf life items, including any new items to be placed in inventory, which have a limited shelf life period;
(2) Establish the shelf life period of such items and procedures for controlling their procurement, storage, and issue; and
(3) Inspect or test certain shelf life items prior to deterioration to determine if the shelf life may be extended. Shelf life items are classified as nonexpendable (Type I) and expendable (Type II):
(a) Type I items have a definite storage life after which the item or material is considered to be no longer usable for its primary function and should be discarded. Examples of Type I items are drugs and medicines with certain characteristics; and
(b) Type II items are those items for which successive re-inspection dates can be established when the items have a continued usability as determined by examination based upon criteria that have been agreed upon. An example of type III item is paint;
(4) Conduct inventory management analysis to determine if shelf life stocks are expected to be utilized prior to the expiration of the original or extended shelf life period; and
(5) If not processed for disposal, process for potential use by other U.S. Government agencies or competitive public sales prior to the expiration date.
d. If property is classified as hazardous refer to 14 FAH-1 H-313.1-3, Hazardous Commodities.
e. Mobile phones State only: A designated receiving official must perform receiving and acceptance of State-owned or -leased mobile phones in accordance with 14 FAH-1 H-312 requirements and create the mobile phone asset record in the ILMS loanable property (LP) module, irrespective of cost thresholds. State-owned or leased-mobile phones are not required to be barcoded.
(1) All State owned or leased mobile phones are considered sensitive property, both as information-technology equipment with memory capability and communication equipment, however, mobile phones are not required to be barcoded and accounted for in ILMS-Asset Management (AM).
(2) Instead the bureau, office, or post must use the ILMS-Loanable Property (LP) module to control mobile phones and either loan (90 days or less) or issue (greater than 90 days) these phones to employees.
14 FAH-1 H-312.8-1 Labeling U.S. Government Agency Ownership
a. All property must be marked to indicate ownership as soon as possible after receipt and acceptance, which is generally the U.S. Government agency that funded the purchase. The receiving official must do such labeling before the property is delivered directly to the user office or moved to a storage location in the warehouse. The receiving official should also apply a barcode label to any property and create the initial asset record in the ILMS Asset Management (AM) module. This will ensure that any accountable property received will be reflected on the property records, including all property stored in a warehouse.
b. Mobile phones State only: A designated receiving official must perform receiving and acceptance of State owned or leased mobile phones and create the mobile phone asset record in the ILMS loanable property (LP) module, irrespective of cost thresholds. State owned or leased mobile phones are not required to be barcoded.
14 FAH-1 H-312.8-2 Agency Identification
a. Incoming property may belong to different U.S. Government agencies. Therefore, property must be easily identified. To prevent commingling and to facilitate identification, the property should be marked to show the specific U.S. Government agency ownership. This can be done with tags or labels bearing the various U.S. Government agency names. When marking the property, care should be taken to not ruin the appearance of the item or cause damage to the property. The mark should be inconspicuous but easily located. Avoid putting the identification on removable parts such as drawers. The markings need to easily be removed since all markings of U.S. Government ownership must be removed during the disposition stages; including when property is transferred to another U.S. Government agency for further use.
b. Leased property should not be labeled with agency identification.
c. Property received with identified discrepancies from the acquisition requirement, including damage or otherwise unusable should not be labeled immediately, because it might be returned to the supplier. It should be set aside until disposition instructions are received from the accountable property officer (APO).
14 FAH-1 H-312.8-3 Barcode Label (State and USAID)
a. All accountable property received must be entered onto the property records. Use ILMS for each accountable property item and ensure the property receives an appropriate barcode label, if applicable. State-owned or -leased mobile phones are not required to be barcoded and are controlled in ILMS loanable property (LM) module not ILMS asset management module.
b. The receiving official should maintain a supply of pre-numbered barcode labels, plus procedures that include the identification of current items to be labeled, and instructions on the placement of the barcode label. When selecting barcode labels, the receiving official should select numbers in sequence. Barcode numbers should not be selected at random.
c. To facilitate an efficient physical inventory, proper placement of barcode labels is important. The labels should be placed in a location that is easily found and conveniently accessible for barcode scanning. However, discretion must be used so that the appearance of the property is not adversely affected. Placing the barcode label should be consistent with each item, (i.e., always in the same place on all dining room chairs, etc.) so that the inventory teams will know where to look during a physical inventory. Avoid putting the barcode label on removable parts such as drawers. Ensure that office furniture in storage within a warehouse is barcoded; but office furniture (systems furniture, office chairs, filing cabinets, etc.) going directly to office space for use does not need a barcode label, since it is not accountable property while in use within an office and is not required to be inventoried.
d. In some instances a property item can be inspected without taking it completely out of the carton. Often, however, a barcode label cannot be properly affixed to the property while it is still in the carton. If the property is to remain in the carton to be stored in a warehouse, a barcode number must be assigned so that the item can be picked up on the property records. In this case, assign a barcode number, mark the number on the case with a felt marking pen, place the barcode label in a small plastic bag or an adhesive-backed packing list envelope, both of which are available for purchase from the General Services Administration (GSA) using GSAAdvantage for office supplies, and affix the bag or envelope to the carton. At the time the property is removed from the carton to be issued for use, the barcode number should be affixed. If the bag is accidentally knocked off and lost during storage, the stenciled barcode number will allow access to the item's property record in ILMS, in order to assign a new barcode number.
e. Property received with identified discrepancies from the acquisition requirement, including in a damaged or unusable condition, should not be barcode labeled immediately. Such property might be returned to the supplier. It should be set aside until disposition instructions are received from the APO.
14 FAH-1 H-312.8-4 State Receiving Worksheet for Nonexpendable Property
a. As each barcode label is affixed to the property the Form DS-1955, Receiving Worksheet for Nonexpendable Property, may be used as a supplemental form to collect the needed data to enter into Integrated Logistics Management System (ILMS) Asset Management (AM) Final Receipt module. The Form DS-1955 is not to replace the DS-127 Receiving and Inspection Report.
b. So that the data entry person is provided with all the necessary information, the APO should ensure that the worksheet is reviewed and that as many of the remaining required data fields as possible be completed before data entry. This is especially true when the APO reviews information for capitalized property to ensure the accuracy of the fund, cost, and other pertinent data.
c. Form DS-1955 should not be immediately prepared for property received with identified discrepancies from the acquisition requirement, including in a damaged or unusable condition. Such property might be returned to the supplier. It should be set aside until the APO issues disposition instructions.
14 FAH-1 H-312.9 Reporting Shipment Discrepancies
a. The importance of recording all of the details related to shipment discrepancies becomes apparent when it is necessary to file a claim for missing or damaged property. The decision to file a claim should be based on whether the administrative costs for such an action are commensurate with the value of the property received. In some instances it might be more economical to dispose of the property or to have it repaired.
b. Timely reporting of the discrepancies to the supplier is critical, but must be made within 30 days from date of delivery receipt.
14 FAH-1 H-312.9-1 Shipping-Type Discrepancies
A shipping-type discrepancy is any variation in quantity, quality, or condition of property received from that shown on the packing list or acquisition document.
14 FAH-1 H-312.9-2 General Services Administration (GSA)/Department of Defense (DOD) Report of Discrepancy (ROD)
a. If the shipment is from a General Services Administration (GSA) supply distribution point or is directed by GSA from a vendor, a report should be made, regardless of the cost. Form SF-364, Report of Discrepancy (ROD), should be prepared and the original and two copies should be sent within 15 calendar days from receipt of shipment to the GSA Discrepancy Reports Center, 1500 E. Bannister Road, Kansas City, MO 64131.
b. Customers who have shipping, transportation, or billing discrepancies on national stock number (NSN) items should view their order status history in GSA Advantage and locate the item and selected the requisition number. Customers will then be taken to a report that allows them to indicate the type of discrepancy, and directly submit the discrepancy report.
c. If the shipment is from a Department of Defense (DOD) activity or is directed by DOD from a vendor, a report should be made if the value of the discrepant material is one hundred dollars or more (or regardless of cost if a DOD vendor ships directly). Form SF-364, Report of Discrepancy (ROD), should be prepared and the original and one copy should be sent to the DOD activity to which the original order was submitted. If the shipment was from a vendor, attach a copy of the vendor's shipping document.
14 FAH-1 H-312.9-3 U.S. Government Agencies Other than General Services Administration (GSA) or Department of Defense (DOD)
If the supplier is a U.S. Government agency other than the General Services Administration (GSA) or the Department of Defense (DOD), the discrepancy must be reported directly to that agency. If the problem is not satisfactorily resolved and assistance is needed, a request for assistance may be submitted to your regional logistics liaison officer located at the U.S. Despatch Agency.
14 FAH-1 H-312.9-4 Commercially Originated Shipments (Other than General Services Administration (GSA) or Department of Defense (DOD)-Directed)
If the shipment is from a commercial source, the discrepancy must be reported directly to the vendor.
14 FAH-1 H-312.9-5 Controlled Substances - Narcotics
a. If there has been a failure to deliver narcotics that have been shipped, regardless of the dollar value, it must be reported immediately to the supplier and Despatch Agent with a request that the suppler inform the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), if required.
b. See 21 CFR 1301.74(c) requirement for registrants to notify the DEA in writing, of the theft or significant loss of any controlled substance within one business day of discovery of such loss or theft. The supplier is responsible for reporting all in-transit losses of controlled substances by the common or contract carrier within one business day of discovery of such theft or loss.
c. The DEA Form 106, Report of Theft or Loss of Controlled Substances is submitted to DEA online.
14 FAH-1 H-312.9-6 Transportation Type Discrepancies
A transportation type discrepancy, is any variation in quantity, as it relates to package count in pieces of freight or condition of material received from that shown on the bill of lading or other transportation document. When reporting transportation type discrepancies, photographs are extremely valuable and must be used when details of the discrepancy cannot be adequately explained in writing or can be more fully supported by such evidence.
14 FAH-1 H-312.9-6(A) Shipments through a Consolidated *Receiving Point
a. Determine where the discrepancy occurred. To determine the proper action to be taken when loss or damage to incoming shipments is discovered, the authorized receiving official performing receiving functions must establish whether the damage occurred before or after the shipment arrived at the port of entry. Refer to the bill(s) of lading and/or the delivery receipts to ascertain where the first notation concerning the loss or damage was made. The first notation will place the responsibility, and the receiving official must act accordingly.
b. Loss or damage before arrival at port of entry: If the initial discrepancy note was made by the ocean carrier upon receipt of the shipment, contact the Despatch Agent. If the initial notation was made by an inspector at the port of entry, a claim must be filed with the carrier. If this is not possible, or if assistance is required, contact the Despatch Agent.
c. Loss or damage after arrival at port of entry: The post is responsible for initiating and effecting settlement of claims directly with the parties responsible for loss or damage occurring after arrival of shipment at the port of entry. These claims will be handled in accordance with local laws and customs. The assistance of a post at the port of entry will be enlisted by inland posts whenever such aid is necessary or will be helpful in reaching a prompt settlement.
14 FAH-1 H-312.9-6(B) Shipments Direct to Posts not in a Consolidation Program
a. General Services Administration (GSA) or Department of Defense (DOD) shipments: If the shipment is made or directed by GSA or by DOD, discrepancies must be immediately reported to GSA or DOD.
b. Supply source other than GSA or DOD: If the shipment was ordered from a supply source other than GSA or DOD, claims for losses or damages must be pursued with that source. Visible damage is generally the result of in-transit damage. If the receiving official is unable to resolve the matter, the regional logistical liaison officer will assist.
14 FAH-1 H-313 Storage OPERATIONS
a. The property management officer (PMO) must implement an efficient, secure, and cost effective storage program. It is the policy of the Department that property in any warehouse is accounted for at all times, and protected against loss or damage or materials being used against us as "weapons of opportunity". Management controls must be in place to prevent loss from damage, theft, or pilferage during receipt, storage, and shipment of U.S Government property.
b. The generally accepted basic fundamentals of modern warehousing are:
(1) Use of a one-story type building;
(2) Use of pallets and materials handling equipment; and
(3) Use of an effective warehouse and storage plan.
14 FAH-1 H-313.1 General Purpose Warehouse
During recent attacks on U.S. facilities, intruders used unsecured mission property as improvised weapons, i.e. weapons of opportunity. To ensure the safety of personnel and property, employees must properly secure and store all materials that can be used as improvised weapons, including, but not limited to, flammable liquids, paint, hand and power tools, rebar, rigid conduit, loose scaffolding, and other loose construction materials or equipment. Such materials must be stored as securely as possible when not in use to prevent access from unauthorized persons.
14 FAH-1 H-313.1-1 Facility Makeup
a. General purpose warehouses include such activities as loose issue and/or bulk storage, receiving, packing, and shipping. The building should be a single story building with high-bay storage space and a loading dock at truck bed level. A cantilever support canopy over a dock is recommended. In addition to the efficiency and speed typical of a high-bay operation, cost is an important factor to be considered. A high-bay structure generally affords more usable space per dollar of investment than any other. Multi-story buildings are discouraged because of the space requirements for elevators and stairs and the higher cost of a structure of sufficient mechanical strength to support upper-level loads. Be mindful of floor-load capacity. Ensure that the floor will adequately support the weight of your planned racking, stock, and material handling equipment.
b. A truck dock of sufficient width on one side of the general purpose warehouse provides for the loading and unloading of truck hauled property. The matching dock and warehouse floor permit direct access of material handling equipment to and from the warehouse interior, and to and from the interior of carrier conveyance.
14 FAH-1 H-313.1-2 Space Allocation
a. Receiving area: An area large enough to accommodate incoming shipments, that can be used as a work area during the receiving process should be established at the loading dock area. If possible, this area should be physically secured (locked) so that only designated employees can gain admittance. Allowance should be made for receiving more than one delivery at a time.
b. Driver’s waiting area: Truck drivers must be directed to a secure room/area while property is being unloaded. Drivers must not have access to the warehouse facility without sufficient justification, and must be accompanied at all times by authorized personnel.
c. Office space: Office space in a general purpose warehouse is strongly discouraged. Offices require physical protection based on requirements in 12 FAH-6, OSPB Security Standards and Policy Handbook, necessitating additional protection beyond that required for warehouses without offices. Office space requires a two-hour fire resistive construction separation between the hazardous storage area and the office area depending on the size of the hazardous storage areas.
d. Controlled access area: A controlled access area must be established for the protection of sensitive, or highly pilferable property. Depending on the type and quantity of property being protected, this area may be a lockable steel cabinet, or lockable cage, room, or vault. A list of authorized personnel should be posted by the entry.
e. Flammable-items room:
(1) In warehouses intended to include storage of flammable property, special provisions for safe storage of these potentially dangerous materials must exist. Ideally, these supplies should be stored in a separate building equipped with an automatic fire sprinkler system. However, if this is not possible and these supplies are stored in a general purpose warehouse, flammable property must be stored in a fire resistant enclosure separated from other supplies by full-height parapeted firewalls and openings equipped with approved fire doors. To provide maximum segregation from other stocks, such a fire-resistant enclosure must be located in a remote section of the building. The room must be in compliance with the latest version of codes and standards of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 30: Flammable and Combustible Liquids Code. The storage location must have immediate access to exterior doors and be readily accessible for firefighting purposes. Adequate explosion ventilation must be provided in storage areas containing flammable liquids. Provisions must also be made for manual or automatic roof venting. The use of roof vents will allow the smoke and heat to be vented so that firefighters can approach the fire;
(2) Flammable storage requires fire rated construction to segregate it from the rest of the warehouse. Separations of one hour fire resistive construction are required if the storage area is less than 150 square feet and two hours if more than 150 square feet. Storage quantities of up to 120 gallons are allowed for Class I-A, I-B, and I-C flammable liquids. These amounts may be increased by 100 percent (240 gallons) when approved storage cabinets are supplied and used. Automatic fire sprinkler protection and automatic fire alarm detection must also be installed in building at this quantity. Spill control is required when the aggregate quantity exceeds 660 gallons or individual storage vessels have 55 gallon capacities. Other requirements may be applicable by NFPA Code 30 or Overseas Buildings Operations (OBO) Architectural Engineering Design Guidelines. Consult OBO’s Design and Engineering Division (OBO/PE/DE) and OBO Fire Protection Engineering Division (OBO/OPS/FIRE/FPE) for specifics; and
(3) The Department reminds all employees of the importance of proper and secure storage for fire accelerants (combustible and flammable materials) and such weapons of opportunity. To ensure the safety and security of property and personnel, all materials that can be used as weapons of opportunity including, but not limited to, flammable or combustible liquids, must be stored as securely as possible when not in use to prevent access by unauthorized persons.
f. Climate-controlled room: In high temperature, or high humidity conditions, conventional storage facilities do not afford adequate protection to certain types of property against damage and deterioration. This is particularly applicable where property remains in storage for extended periods of time. If such conditions exist, consideration should be given to a climate-controlled storage room. Depending on the size of the storage space and the severity of the problem, the use of a window air conditioner might be adequate. In other areas the problem may require an additional dehumidifying unit or a larger cooling system.
g. Charging area: Electric powered materials handling equipment are powered by industrial storage batteries that will require periodic charging. If such equipment is to be used, a charging area should be established. The charging area should be in an area where traffic (workers, equipment) is minimal but accessible to equipment that needs charging. The area and ventilation requirements must conform to the latest edition of NFPA 70, National Electric Code. Safety features of the charging area must include:
(1) An eyewash station in the area capable of providing at least 15 minutes of running water at 0.4 gallons per minute. A plumbed unit providing tempered water is recommended, if feasible. The accountable property officer (APO) must implement procedures to test and flush plumbed units weekly to preclude the accumulation of bacteria and debris. If eyewash tanks are used, include "Hydrosep," or equivalent water preservative, in the reservoir to help maintain water quality. Portable eyewash bottles are not adequate;
(2) Battery leads are kept off the floor with retractable cable units;
(3) Acid spill clean-up absorbent materials or acid neutralizers along with pH paper for testing in case of a spill or leak from a battery;
(4) Label chargers to match the circuit breaker they are connected to and ensure that the power source capacity matches that of the chargers; and
(5) Provide a face shield, protective gloves and an apron for protection against acid spills and splashes when adding battery fluid to battery cells.
(1) The structure of the warehouse; quantity, nature, and activity of materials to be stored; and by the types and capacity of materials handling equipment available determines aisle layout. They should be planned with a view towards providing sufficient access to the property stored, loading and unloading facilities, fire protection equipment, and should be wide enough to provide maneuvering room for the materials handling equipment. They should be planned to provide straight and clear passageways unobstructed by support columns, elevators, heaters, or other such construction features;
(2) Normally, one or two main aisles run the length of the general purpose warehouse. These aisles allow materials handling equipment or supplies to move straight through the length of the building. Typically, these main aisles are connected by cross aisles that are working aisles and allow material to be placed into and removed from storage. Aisles at least 2.39 meters (8 feet) wide are needed to help restrict the spread of fire across aisles (even when sprinklers are present) and to provide a means of egress and firefighting access. Aisle widths specified below for materials handling equipment are not to be construed as the absolute limitation for all operations. They represent the dimensions under which most operations may be conducted. The aisle widths specified are based upon a load of 40 inches:
(a) 2,000 pound trucks - 2.85 meters (9 feet 6 inches);
(b) 4,000 pound trucks - 3 meters (10 feet); and
(c) 6,000 pound trucks - 3.45 meters (11 feet 6 inches);
(3) Aisle widths for different load lengths will be determined on the basis that a variation of 20 centimeters (8 inches) in the load length will have a corresponding variation of 15 centimeters (6 inches) in the aisle width. For example, a 1.2 meter (4 feet/48 inches) load length will increase the aisle widths indicated above by 15 centimeters (6 inches);
(4) The recommended lift is a typical sit-down counter-balanced forklift which requires a minimum of 12 feet aisle widths. In cases where space is at a premium, stand-up reach lifts require a minimum of 9 foot aisle widths; and
(5) The width of aisles in bin and shelving areas should permit easy movement of stock selector trucks through the storage area. Generally, this requires an aisle of 75 to 90 centimeters (30 to 36 inches) in width.
i. Lighting must be sufficient to provide visibility during operations and must include emergency lighting features.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2 Storage Management
During recent attacks on U.S. facilities, intruders used unsecured mission property as improvised weapons, i.e. weapons of opportunity. To ensure the safety of mission personnel and property, employees must properly secure and store all materials that can be used as improvised weapons, including, but not limited to, flammable liquids, paint, hand and power tools, rebar, rigid conduit, loose scaffolding, and other loose construction materials or equipment. Such materials must be stored as securely as possible when not in use to prevent access by unauthorized persons.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-1 Storage Planning
a. The prime objective of storage planning is maximizing available space. When practical, planning should provide for the full use of cubic footage, and items with similar handling requirements should be stored together. Heavier property should be placed on the lower shelves for stability and to minimize lifting hazards to employees. Grouping similar items facilitates storage and issue, and contributes to effective care of supplies. Many bulky and heavy materials, which are difficult to handle, should be stored, when practicable, near doors, aisles leading directly to doors, or shipping/receiving areas where readily accessible with materials handling equipment and at the lowest level of storage racks to prevent accidents. The quantity of material on-hand also affects the amount of space required. It will frequently be desirable to increase the amount of space assigned to an item in a single location in order to eliminate the need for two locations. On small lots, other space savers, such as pallet racks and bins, should be utilized. Some property must be protected from dampness and extreme changes in temperature. Other property must be stored away from light and odors or protected from infestation of vermin and other pests. Property subject to pilferage requires special protection, and all property must be protected from fire. Storage of items must not interfere with automated fire suppression system and security video capabilities. Earthquake zones have special engineering requirements for storage racks.
b. Some property referred to as "shelf-life" items possess deteriorative or unstable characteristics to the degree that a storage time period must be assigned to ensure that they will perform satisfactorily when issued for use. Normally, shelf-life items are issued on a first-in, first-out basis. Additionally, some items contain heat sensor or other methods to visually notify staff that the temperature limits have been exceeded and therefore the item should not be issued for use. The accountable property officer (APO) must ensure that these items are properly identified in storage area locations and that first-in, first-out procedures are in place.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-2 Bulk Supplies
a. The storage of any large quantity of supplies, usually in original containers, is referred to as bulk storage. It is recommended that all bulk supplies be palletized using 1 meter x 1.2 meter (40 x 48 inches) pallets. Supplies should be uniformly arranged on pallets and, whenever possible, pallet loads should be uniform in quantity. To take advantage of cubic space, the pallets are stacked one on another. The height of the stacking depends on the crushability of the property, stability and safety of the stack, the maximum lifting height of the materials handling equipment, the floor load capacity of the storage areas, and the fire protection height limits.
b. Partially loaded pallets should be stored in pallet racks or on top of stacks. A full load should not be superimposed on a partial load, and a large load should not be superimposed on a small load. Heavy loads should not be stored on top of material that could be broken or damaged.
c. When the building is equipped with an automatic fire sprinkler system, the stack clearance below the sprinkler deflectors must be:
(1) At least 45 centimeters (18 inches) when stack heights do not exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet);
(2) At least 90 centimeters (3 feet/36 inches) when stack heights exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet); and
(3) At least 90 centimeters (3 feet/36 inches) when hazardous commodities are involved, regardless of stack height.
d. If the minimum water flow density is not achieved for rack storage, in-rack automatic fire sprinkler protection may be required.
e. The stack clearance below joists, rafters, and beams must be:
(1) 45 centimeters (18 inches) when stack heights do not exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet);
(2) 90 centimeters (3 feet/36 inches) when stack heights exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet); and
(3) 90 centimeters (3 feet/36 inches) in buildings without automatic fire sprinkler systems, regardless of stack height.
f. Around light or heating fixtures, a clearance of 45 centimeters (18 inches) must be maintained.
Example: pallet use
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-3 Pallet Loading
a. Durable recyclable plastic or other non-wood pallets are preferred for total lifecycle efficiency and environmental factors. Though they cost more, they last longer and wood-destroying organisms will not infest them.
b. The following loading practices should be followed because of the extreme importance of assuring stability of pallet loads:
(1) Use proper order: Place the inner containers of a layer first and then work out to the edges of the pallet;
(2) Distribute unused space: When loading containers which, because of their size or shape, do not completely cover the pallet's surface, the unused or vacant space should be distributed evenly throughout the pallet load;
(3) Distribute overhang: When containers or items overhang the pallet, they should be evenly distributed on the pallet;
(4) Cross-tie containers on pallets: Where possible, the containers should be cross-tied on the pallet in order to obtain maximum stability. Alternating the direction of containers on the pallet ties the containers together in a compact unit load. The method of cross-tying varies according to the size, shape, and crushability of the container; and
(5) Align the strongest edges of cartons: Most cartons have four edges, which are either reinforced, or more strongly constructed than the other four. For this reason the cartons should be placed with the strong edges positioned as vertical support for additional cartons and upper tier pallet loads.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-4 Storing Bulk Supplies
a. There are two basic methods of storing bulk supplies:
(1) Row stacking: The stacking of supplies from the wall or from any imaginary line to the aisle, leaving enough space between the stacks so that any row of pallet stacks can be withdrawn without interference. Other factors being equal, the layout of row stacks in an individual storage bay or area, bounded by two aisles, should be arranged so that the rows extend across the shortest dimension, since vacant space existing in a partially filled long row cannot be used for storage of other items until all the supplies stored in the row are completely exhausted. In large storage blocks surrounded by aisles, the stack should start at an imaginary or floor marked line running parallel to the longest dimension of the block. This arrangement provides for the storage, in back-to-back pallet rows, of different commodities and conserves aisle space as only one end of each row requires accessibility; and
Example: row stacking
(2) Block stacking: Block stacking is the stacking of supplies in rows so that each row contacts another. In other words, there is no clearance or wasted space between the rows. Block stacking conserves space but should be used only when storing large quantities of an item. Extreme care should be exercised in block stacking to avoid interlocking pallets. Interlocked pallets create a hazard to operating personnel during stock withdrawal operations.
Example: block stacking
b. Provided applicable local fire regulations do not stipulate a more stringent requirement, clearance between stacked, stored supplies, and exterior or interior brick or masonry, or other approved fire resistant walls, need not be maintained for firefighting purposes:
(1) Except clearance for exceedingly large quantities of individual flammable or hazardous item lots must be 90 centimeters (3 feet/36 inches) between the wall and stored supplies; and
(2) At least 60 centimeters (2 feet/24 inches) clearance be must be maintained around interior fire doors.
c. Provided applicable local fire regulations do not stipulate a more stringent requirement, at least 60 centimeters (2 feet/24 inches) clearance must be maintained between any wood or other substandard exterior or interior wall and stacked, stored supplies
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-5 Honeycombing
Honeycombing refers to storing and withdrawing supplies so that the empty space resulting from withdrawing is not usable for the storage of additional items. Material should be withdrawn row by row starting from the aisle and working back to the wall or imaginary line, and not across the whole front of the stacks. Withdrawals across the front of the stacks merely widen the aisle and do not create additional space for the storage of new commodities. Honeycombing also includes void spaces within the arrangement of materials on pallets, which results in space loss. When supplies are stored in more than one location in the warehouse, withdrawals should be concentrated against one specific location until stock is exhausted, thus creating space for new receipts.
Examples: honeycombing storage:
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-6 Small and Loose Issue
a. The use of various types of racks for storing small and loose issue supplies is an efficient means of obtaining maximum stock accessibility and cube space utilization. The use of pallet racks, for example, is particularly useful for the storage of large items of irregular shape not adaptable to pallet stacking.
b. Generally, small items (e.g., pencils, paper clips, staplers, staples, etc.) or items that are issued in less than standard package amounts (e.g., forms) require storage on open shelving, in shelving boxes, or in bins. Repetitive issue of small quantities of "binnable" type items from bulk storage can rarely be justified. Therefore, such items go into bins which minimize the inventory and security problems found where there are broken cases of binnable type items in bulk storage locations. When establishing a shelving/bin area, a somewhat central location is recommended with due regard to security, location of bulk storage, and shipping assembly areas. This will facilitate bin replenishment, reduce internal hauling, and lessen the work of consolidating bin items processed for issue with bulk quantities. Fast moving binnable items must be assigned space adequate to minimize replenishment frequency, time, and effort.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-7 Sensitive and Pilferable Items
a. A controlled access area must be established for the protection of sensitive property (property which requires a high degree of protection and control, and property which is of a high value which could include items that have the potential of being used against us as weapons of opportunity) and pilferable property (property having a ready resale value or personal appeal). Depending on the type and quantity of property to be protected, the area may be a lockable steel cabinet, or lockable room, wire cage, or vault. The area should be located in heavily trafficked locations most easily observed by staff and security personnel. A list of authorized personnel should be posted by the entry.
b. The codes of combination built in locks or padlocks must be strictly controlled and issued to authorized personnel only. A record must be kept indicating who has each combination.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-8 Climate Control Storage
a. The storage life of many items may vary according to the geographical location of a warehouse, and storage temperature and humidity conditions. Pressure sensitive tapes are considered semi-perishable items, heat being the most damaging factor. In general, the lower the storage temperature condition, the longer the life of the tape. Ideal temperature conditions are 18 to 24 degrees Celsius (65 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit). As the temperature rises above 24 degrees Celsius (75 degrees Fahrenheit), the life of the tape will be correspondingly shortened. Although relative humidity is not too important with respect to paper backed tapes, it is extremely important to the cellophane backed tapes.
b. The deterioration of many fabric items, subsistence, and leather stocks is accelerated when temperature exceeds 21 degrees Celsius (70 degrees Fahrenheit) and relative humidity is greater than 40 per cent. High temperatures also may cause certain plastics and similar materials to flow and change shape.
c. Posts in high-temperature, high-humidity locations should consider storing items such as transparent tape, rubber bands, machine ribbons, and other items that may be damaged by these conditions, in a climate controlled room.
d. The control of humidity within storage structures is a method of protection, not a method of rejuvenation. Controlled humidity storage will not remove rust that is already present, nor will it restore material that has deteriorated prior to storage. Material placed in this type of storage in a condition other than clean may continue to deteriorate, particularly when contamination is of a corrosive nature.
e. Climate control also needs to be considered to protect employees from exposure to extreme temperatures. Warehouses in cold climates are usually heated. In climates where hot weather is the norm, air conditioning for employee health and safety is often not provided. In those cases, supervisors need to schedule work so that employees do not experience heat stress or exhaustion. Techniques such as scheduling heavy material handling tasks during cooler times of the day, frequent rest breaks, and working in teams should be employed.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-9 Plywood
Plywood should be stored in a closed shed, particularly when the plywood has interior glue lines. Plywood should be kept dry and not in contact with soil to discourage infestation from wood-destroying organisms. For prolonged storage, a heated storage building is recommended. Under humid conditions, edges tend to swell because of exposed end grain, and this swelling causes dishing (becoming upwardly concave), especially in the upper panels of high piles. Dishing can be minimized by placing stickers (a wooden stick or strip placed between boards or plywood sheets to hasten drying and reduce warping—also called "crosser") in the pile at intervals. Enough strips should be used so that plywood will not bend between them. Dry one-inch strips are suitable for plywood.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-10 Dry-Cell Batteries
a. Dry-cell batteries are a perishable commodity and should be stored in the coolest practicable dry, ventilated storage space. The chemical activity that causes battery deterioration is lessened considerably as the storage temperature is lowered. Open storage in buildings with metal roofs is highly discouraged for storage of batteries since these types absorb and conduct heat to a high degree. When possible, batteries should be stored in refrigerated space or in a warehouse having constant or controlled temperature. Wide temperature variations are as damaging as high temperatures.
b. Batteries removed from original containers must never come in contact with steel, steel shelving, or other metal objects that can cause short circuits or discharging.
c. Some dry-cell batteries generate small quantities of gas, particularly during the first few months after manufacture. To avoid the possibility of an accumulation of gas, adequate ventilation in the storage area must be provided.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-11 Tires
a. Rubber tires for trucks, automobiles, etc. tend to dry-rot more quickly when stored in locations subject to excessive daylight, heat, air in motion, and ozone. Unmounted, stored tires should be kept in a closed, clean, dark, cool, dry room. A tarpaulin or other heavy, tightly woven fabric placed over the tires tends to curtail the effect of light, moving air, and dirt. To reduce the destructive effect of heat, the temperature of the storage room, ideally, should not exceed 21 to 27 degrees Celsius (70 to 80 degrees Fahrenheit).
b. Tires (tube or tubeless) should be stored in a vertical position. They may be grouped by size on standard 1 m by 1.2 meter (40 inches by 48 inches) pallets and stored on pallet racks or by using pallet adapters. Piles that are not adjacent to or located along a wall must be not more than 50 feet (15 meters) in width. Tires stored adjacent to or along one wall must not extend more than 25 feet (7.6 meters) from the wall. Where tires are stored on tread, the dimension of the pile in the direction of the wheel hole must be not more than 50 feet (15 meters). The width of the main aisles between piles must be not less than 8 feet (2.4 meters). Stored tires must be segregated from other combustible storage by aisles not less than 8 feet (2.4 meter) wide.
c. Stored tires should not be kept in rooms in which electric motors, generators, or battery chargers are operated. When operated, these devices release into the air oxygen and ozone that have a very destructive effect on rubber. Nor should tires be stored in the same or adjoining rooms with gasoline and lubricants because the solids, fluids, or vapors from gasoline and lubricants are readily absorbed by rubber causing tires to rot.
Example: tire storage rack
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-12 Furniture and Appliances
a. Ideally, furniture and appliances should be stored in cool dry storage areas to prevent warping, disintegration of glue, rust, corrosion, and dry-rot of gaskets. The use of cantilever racks or pallet racks are recommended for the storage of furniture and appliances, and both should be stored in original cartons when possible (even when stored on rack). To facilitate stock issue and physical inventory, similar items should be stored together (sofas together, refrigerators together, etc.). If storage racks are not available, and furniture or appliances are still in original cartons, they may be stacked one on top of the other. The height of the stacking depends on the stability, weight and safety of the stack.
b. Some furniture items removed from cartons can be stacked, if proper care is taken. Furniture pads should be used to protect flat surfaces that come in contact with each other (e.g., one desk inverted, and stacked on the top surface of another), or plywood, heavy cardboard, or similar material should be placed under each leg of a desk if stacked upright on top of another. Open appliances should never be stacked.
c. Furniture and appliances not in original cartons should be covered with heavy paper, plastic, blankets, or some other suitable covering to protect it from dust, dirt, etc.
d. Locate and organize stored furniture so that workers performing manual lifting and carrying or material handling equipment or forklifts can access it easily and safely.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-13 Machines and Air Conditioners
Office machines and air conditioners are susceptible to rust and corrosion plus dust can damage them easily. They should be stored in original cartons, preferably on steel shelving for light units and on storage racks for larger, heavier units. If a machine or air conditioner has been removed from the carton, it should be covered with plastic or other appropriate covering. To prevent moisture from forming and causing rust or mildew, the covering should be loosely hung so that air can get to the item.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-14 Paint
a. In addition to the special hazardous materials handling and storing practices required, other precautions are also needed when storing paint. Most paints deteriorate with age and have a shelf life. Older stocks must be moved out first. Some paints require special handling to retard settling. Periodic inspection of all paints and related products (thinners, removers, etc.) should be performed.
b. When storing paint, consider the following:
(1) Temperature: Water based paint and resin emulsion paints may be damaged through freezing. Since all paints are prepared for application at moderate temperatures, excessive heat may cause expansion through creation of gases, and result in the bursting of container seals;
(2) Dampness: Storage of paints in excessively damp storage areas should be avoided to prevent rusting of containers;
(3) Inspection: When paints have reached the end of shelf life storage periods, periodic inspections should be performed. For normal paint storage life, the containers should be opened and inspected, and a record kept of the date the paint was inspected. A sampling inspection is generally adequate. However, if doubt exists as to condition, a large number of cans should be opened. Subsequent inspections should be conducted every three months;
(4) Turning paint: The storage life of certain paints may be increased substantially by regular turning of the containers (in some instances on a monthly basis); and
(5) Additionally, it is important to consider the potential for these kinds of materials to be used as "weapons of opportunity". Always remain vigilant when determining the storage location of materials that can be used against as "weapons of opportunity."
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-15 Hazardous Materials
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-15(A) Safety Data Sheet
a. 29 CFR 1910.1200(g) requires all chemicals that are hazardous must have a safety data sheet (SDS) that explains what the material is, its health and physical hazards, how to handle safely, and what should be done in the event of a spill or other accident. After June 1, 2015, the U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requires pictograms on labels to alert workers of the chemical hazards to which they may be exposed. The OSHA HCS requirements align with the third revised edition of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of classification and labelling of chemicals. Each pictogram consists of a symbol on a white background framed within a red border and represents a distinct hazard(s). The pictogram on the label is determined by the chemical hazard classification.
Example: HCS pictograms and hazards
b. Pay particular attention to hazardous materials. For example, ensure original containers remain sealed and intact, but be prepared for the possibility of a leak or spill. Use diking to prevent spread of chemical spills or leaks if indicated on Safety Data Sheets.
c. The hazard communication standard requires chemical manufacturers, distributors, to provide SDSs to communicate the hazards of chemical products. After June 1, 2015, a new, uniform format was required. SDS should be stored in a binder clearly marked and available and easily accessible to all employees.
d. E.O. 13693 requires use of environmentally preferable products and when possible, substitute hazardous materials with green products. Whenever possible, safer or non-hazardous materials should be substituted for more hazardous products. Feedback of potential alternative products to procurement officials is encouraged. Reference FAR 48 CFR 23.000 and E.O. 13693, "Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade," requirements including purchasing environmentally preferable products (recycled content, biopreferred and biobased, etc.). Plus reducing or minimizing the quantity of toxic and hazardous chemicals and materials acquired, used or disposed of, particularly to assist in greenhouse gas emission reduction.
e. Additional types of hazards associated with commodities to be stored in warehouses may include radioactive sources.
f Warehouse supervisors must ensure that warehouse employees are trained on the hazards of materials stored or used in the warehouse and how to protect against these hazards. At overseas posts, the Post Occupational Safety and Health Officer (POSHO) with support from the Office of Safety, Health and Environmental Management (OBO/OPS/SHEM) can assist.
g. Extreme care should be taken in the handling and stacking of hazardous materials to prevent rupture or leakage of containers. All containers should be thoroughly inspected for leaks before being placed in storage. Hazardous materials must not be stored with flammables or on upper shelves that require employees to lift them over their heads.
h. To provide for an adequate distribution of water or other fire extinguishing agent in case of fire, and to provide easy accessibility to supplies for frequent and effective inspection, the stacking height must be limited to 3.6 meters (12 feet), the clearance between the top of the stack and the sprinkler head must be at least 90 centimeters (3 feet/36 inches), and the clearance between the stacks and the warehouse walls should be at least 90 centimeters (3 feet/36 inches).
i. Drum quantities of hazardous materials are discouraged and should only be purchased as a last resort. Storage of drums in a horizontal position should be avoided. Deterioration of drums, or damage to dispensing valves, can result in uncontrolled leakage.
j. Storage area staff must post signs to identify hazardous storage areas and access must be restricted.
k. The hazardous materials information resource system (HMIRS) is a U.S. Government "for official use only (FOUO)" product as the authoritative source for material safety data sheets (MSDS) on over 380,000 hazardous products for the U.S. Government military and civil agencies. The system assists U.S. Government personnel who handle, store, transport, or disposed of hazardous materials.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-15 (B) Flammable Commodities
a. Flammable commodities should be stored in a specially prepared room. The room construction, capacity, and electrical wiring will be in accordance with the most current version of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 30: Flammable and Combustible Liquid Code.
b. Volatile liquids and other highly flammable materials having a flashpoint (flashpoint is the lowest temperature at which vapors above a volatile combustible substances ignite in air when exposed to ignition source, such as flame, spark, etc.) of less than 26.6 degrees Celsius (80 degrees Fahrenheit) must not be stored in segregated enclosures within a warehouse together with other flammable supplies such as paints, varnishes, oils, and solvents, unless the quantity involved is small and other segregated storage facilities are not available. The highly flammable material must be segregated from other flammable stocks in accordance with the most current version of NFPA Code 30. Many older warehouses may not meet the requirements of NFPA Code. In that case, it is better to store material in an approved flammable liquids cabinet. This is particularly important for the Class I liquids which are characterized by flashpoints below 22.7 degrees Celsius (73 degrees Fahrenheit).
c. Extreme care should be taken in the handling and stacking of all flammable commodities to prevent rupture and leakage of the containers. All containers must be inspected for leaks prior to being placed in storage, and at frequent intervals thereafter in order to detect leaks that may occur while in storage. Where quantities of individual item lots are exceedingly large and the required space is available, a clearance of approximately 90 cm (3 ft) must be maintained between lots, and between exterior and interior walls.
Examples: flammable and hazardous storage cabinets
Example: propane tank storage cabinet
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-15 (C) Corrosive Chemicals
Products that are corrosive may be either acid or caustic. Typical products that are acids are used for filling batteries, some cleaning products, concrete etchers, etc. Caustic materials are used as pool chemicals, cleaners, and drain openers. To avoid violent reactions if spilled or leaked, these products must not be stored together. Corrosives must be stored on lower shelves and not directly on top of metal shelving. Corrosives must be stored within an extra container, such as a plastic bin, so that if a leak occurs it will be contained in that bin and not spread over other items in the warehouse.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-16 Material Control
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-16 (A) Material Control Procedures
a. Written procedures must ensure proper control over the care, storage, and movement of all property in the facility.
b. The procedures must address the following:
(1) Property being received should be inspected promptly as to condition and quantity and that property is received in accordance with the terms and specifications of the acquisition document;
(2) Damaged or missing property be documented and reported using the Form DS-132, Property Disposal Authorization and Survey Report;
(3) Stock issues and changes in stock physical location are documented using the Form DS-584, Property Transaction, and approved prior to the physical issuance of the property or movement of the property;
(4) Stock location records are appropriately and timely updated in the Integrated Logistics Management System (ILMS) Asset Management (AM) module;
(5) Carrier loading of all material leaving the facility, such as material being sent to a commercial packer, must be checked to ensure that correct items and/or pieces are loaded and copy of the controlling document should be initialed by the supervisor responsible for loading activities. The carrier representative should also sign a copy of the controlling document; and
(6) Release of storage material being temporarily held for other offices should be requested in writing by the owning activity. At the warehouse manager’s discretion emergency requests for such material may be made by phone. However, in this event, the facility staff should prepare documentation to be signed by the ordering activity upon delivery of material to that office.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-16 (B) Stock Location System
a. For small bulk storage areas, a formal stock location system usually is not necessary. Items may be organized in any order that makes it easy to locate them. In facilities with large bulk areas, a manual or automated central stock locator system to pinpoint an exact storage location should be established and properly maintained. The warehouse supervisor and the property records clerk are the two individuals responsible for managing stock location in the warehouse.
b. The location record must be maintained in the Integrated Logistics Management System (ILMS) Asset Management (AM) module.
c. Manual stock locator records and location data on automated systems should be secured against unauthorized access at all times.
d. Site identification:
(1) In order to establish a locator system for bulk storage areas, the area should be subdivided and individual locations assigned a location code. Numbers or letters are assigned for each row, and rack or stack level. In the example below storage site identification, the location number of a given item might be "112-12-3" (located in row 112, stack 12, level 3);
Example: stock locator system
(2) A good locator system is necessary for a bin storage area, and the system can be used for bin areas also. Assign a number or letter to each row, column/unit, level, and bin. The marking can then be consecutive throughout the bin area, such as 1 through 205, or consecutive on each row level. In the bin location example below the six bins on level D would be assigned numbers 1 through 6. The location number for a given item in this instance might be "12-40-D-3" (located in row 12, column/unit 40, level D, and bin 3); and
Example: bin location descriptive pattern
(3) Depending upon the size of the operation and the supply distribution volume, it is sometimes expedient to number pallet rack and bins in stock number sequence.
e. Stock location: To facilitate recording stock locations in large facilities, a stock location record change document should be used and its use addressed in written internal procedures, below is an example of a stock location change document.
Example: stock location change document
Date: January 6, 2016 Quantity: 10
Stock/Part Number: 702144UJ38 Unit of Issue: cartridge
Description: Thermaplex high temperature bearing grease, Lithium Complex Base, Size 14.1 oz., Container Type Cartridge, NLGI Grade 2, Color Brown, Temp. Range -15 Degrees to 392 Degrees F, Flash Point Up to 392 Degrees F, Dropping Point 536 Degrees F, Four-Ball Wear Not Specified, Specific Gravity 0.98, Timken OK Load 70 lb., Viscosity @ 40C 180, Viscosity @ 100C 12, Metal Detectable No 702144UJ38 LPS 4UJ38, 1 year warranty.
Old location: 112-12-3 New location: 12-40-D-3
Action authorized by: Carla Smith, Warehouse supervisor
Action taken by: Paula Doe, Materials selector
Posted to location record (ILMS) by: David Dunn, Records manager
f. Receiving: If a stock location system is being used, written receiving procedures should ensure that, upon acceptance and storage of incoming stock, the stock locator official receives a document indicating the stock placement location. The stock location change document can be utilized, or the location code can be noted on the Form DS-127, Receiving and Inspection Report and a copy forwarded to the stock locator official.
g. Location changes: When making stock location changes, it is necessary that new stock location changes be reported, in writing, to the stock locator official within one business day.
h. Stock issue: When filling orders, where the selection of stock unexpectedly exhausts the supply in a designated location, or when it is determined that stock is not stored in the location shown on the locator records, a stock location change document should be prepared by appropriate personnel and forwarded to the locator official. If it is determined that items are physically missing or damaged then the DS-132, Property Disposal Authorization and Survey Report must be completed and submitted to the property management officer to process or refer to the survey board for action to determine potential liability for the loss of U.S. Government property. Suspected theft or fraud must be reported to the Office of Inspector General, Office of Investigations (OIG/INV) (reference 14 FAM 416.5, Reporting Damaged, Missing, or Destroyed Property).
i. Verification: To obtain maximum accuracy, all stock locator records should be reconciled periodically. The frequency and manner of such a total reconciliation will be at the discretion of the storage manager and should be approved by the accountable property officer. However, all property located in warehouses or store room regardless of cost are physically inventoried each fiscal year (Reference 14 FAM 416, Physical Inventory and Reconciliation plus 14 FAM 411.4 definition for accountable property). At larger facilities, an interim at random or "spot reconciliation" should also be performed throughout the year, using generally accepted audit random sampling inventory processes and techniques.
j. It is an industry leading business practice to use automation effectively to increase accuracy and efficiency of storage operations. This can be accomplished with a location system that also uses barcodes for the property location as well as the property stored in the location. For storage the location barcode should be scanned first and then the property placed in the location and count recorded by use of scanners. For property issuance the same process is done with the property location barcode scanned and then the property to be issued pulled from the location and count recorded by use of scanners.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-16 (C) Material Release
a. The release of material from the storage facility must be controlled by documentation and written authorization. Material released will generally be either stock (material stored to meet future requests and replenished as quantities are depleted) or storage (material held in storage temporarily at the ordering activities request and not routinely replenished).
b. Stock issue: Written warehouse operating procedures should ensure that:
(1) No stock is issued unless a stock issue document, properly approved, is completed to document the transaction; and
(2) The general services office is notified in writing by annotating the stock issue document in instances where a stock shortage will not permit filling the amount requested.
c. Storage: Release of material stored for another agency should be requested in writing by the owning agency. At the discretion of the accountable property officer (APO), emergency requests for such material may be made by phone. However, in that event, the storage facility staff should prepare documentation to be signed by the ordering activity upon delivery or pickup of the material.
d. Shipments: Carrier loading of all outgoing shipments must be checked to ensure that correct items and number of pieces are loaded. A facility copy of the bill of lading or other control document should be initialed by the supervisor responsible for loading activities.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-16 (D) Tracking
a. Warehouse operating procedures should include a system for controlling and tracking property in various stages of change and movement such as:
(1) In transit property (i.e., property that will not be kept in the facility but will be forwarded to other locations);
(2) Property that has temporarily left the facility but is still the responsibility of the facility (e.g., property sent to a commercial packing facility);
(3) Stock issue orders being assembled; and
(4) Property being held for shipment.
b. Such a tracking system should indicate location, time in place at that location, estimated time final action is to be completed, and procedures for follow-up if action is not completed by that time.
14 FAH-1 H-313.2-17 Housekeeping
a. Proper housekeeping practices are essential for the protection of supplies in storage. Some of the major benefits of good housekeeping are:
(1) Conservation of space, equipment, operating materials, time, and effort;
(2) Protection of merchandise;
(3) Protection of people and the environment from hazardous exposures;
(4) Prevention of accident and fire safety hazards; and
(5) Increased employee morale.
b. The existence of poor housekeeping generally reflects negligence and carelessness. In most cases, this condition is traceable to inadequate training and supervision. For maximum operating efficiency and for employee health and safety, good housekeeping practices and orderliness must be maintained in the warehouse at all times.
c. A fundamental rule of good housekeeping is that cleanup action should be considered as a part of the operation itself. In other words, the proper time to clean up debris, spills, etc. is as soon as practicable after such has accumulated or occurred. If immediate cleanup is not possible, interim protective measures may be required. For example, an area where a spill of slippery liquid soap occurred might be cordoned off and posted with warning signs. This does not eliminate the need for a periodic inspection and systematic cleanup such as a regular sweeping of the entire warehouse and a periodic dusting of bin shelves.
d. Recommended good housekeeping practices are as follows:
(1) Immediate disposition of all packing materials. These constitute an operational hazard and may cause personnel to slip or fall, resulting in serious injury. Also, such items are a safety hazard to forklift truck operations and may cause serious accidents;
(2) Immediately remove and properly store truck blocking and bracing dunnage. Pieces of dunnage, when struck by a forklift truck wheel, may jar the truck to such an extent that materials being transported may be thrown from the truck or may cause the operator to lose control of the truck to the extent that it may crash into other stored materials or walls;
(3) Keep a sufficiently large waste or recycling containers immediately adjacent to the receiving area. Distribute sufficient waste containers throughout the storage areas to facilitate the disposal of all accumulated waste;
(4) Keep waste containers closed at all times;
(5) Store loose combustible packing supplies such as excelsior, sawdust, and shredded paper in covered metal containers or in storage bins lined with metal;
(6) Keep all aisles clear of obstructions such as pieces of dunnage, pallets, boxes, or other items that will prevent efficient operations in these areas;
(7) Remove oil, grease, or other liquids that would make floors slippery, and treat the area with an oil removing compound to remove all slipperiness from the floor. Do not use flammable liquids as a cleaning agent;
(8) Provide adequate light, ventilation, and heat for proper working conditions. Replace lights, as required, for safe operation;
(9) Provide a container outside for the proper disposal of cigarette butts, matches, and other such items at outside designated smoking areas;
(10) Maintain sanitary washrooms and lavatories;
(11) Initiate immediate action, when necessary, to obtain utility repairs and maintenance services and carry out immediate follow-up action to ensure that equipment, building facilities, etc., are kept in good operating condition;
(12) The use of electric extension cords must be for temporary use only and not installed as permanent wiring. Power strips must not be daisy-chained and must have a surge protector and circuit interrupter as part of the unit. Both electrical cords must be UL or CE listed;
(13) Properly segregate and store all salvageable scrap and junk material pending final disposition. Refuse, garbage, and debris that is not recyclable should be disposed of daily; and
(14) Inspect all storage areas regularly for cleanliness or any unsafe operating conditions and take immediate action to correct any unsafe conditions noted.
e. Workers performing housekeeping tasks using chemical products are required to receive training on hazard communication, the hazards associated with the tasks they perform, and protective measures. Engineering controls, administrative measures and personal protective equipment may be needed and additional occupational safety and health requirements may be triggered. For example, workers exposed to excessive noise, would require hearing protection and to be enrolled in a hearing conservation program.
f. E.O. 13693: Planning for Federal Sustainability in the Next Decade, requires to the maximum extent practicable, the acquisition of “Safer Choice” labeled products (chemically intensive products that contain safer ingredients), plus the purchase of environmentally preferable products including biopreferred and biobased designated products.
14 FAH-1 H-313.3 Storage Aids
The term "storage aid" includes various types of devices, implements, equipment, and materials used to facilitate the efficient and safe storage and handling of supplies, and designed specifically to provide maximum accessibility and space utilization with minimum handling. Typical examples of items referred to as storage aids include plastic or steel bins, open shelving, shelf boxes, pallet storage racks, pallets, and skids.
14 FAH-1 H-313.3-1 Bins and Open Shelving
Bins and open shelving come in a variety of shapes and sizes, are usually constructed of metal, and may or may not have adjustable shelves and dividers. Metal shelving is preferable to any type of combustible shelving material. In a fire, metal shelving is apt to maintain its integrity whereas combustible shelving will contribute to the fire and is prone to weakness and collapse, making extinguishing difficult, often resulting in a more severe fire For high seismic risk locations, storage bins and open shelving must be designed and anchored to resist earthquake forces.
Example: storage bins and open shelving
14 FAH-1 H-313.3-2 Shelf Boxes
a. A shelf box is a storage box that is placed within the bin and is used for storing various small loose items, which because of their shape, or size are difficult to keep on shelves. The shelf boxes provide retainer walls on four sides of the material being stored, thereby eliminating stock-sloping, which wastes usable cube space. Shelf boxes can also be double stacked on a bin shelf to facilitate use of cubic space. When relocation of the item is required, it can be accomplished by moving the shelf box with contents. The result is reduced handling of loose stock.
b. Basic types of boxes are:
(1) Small, one compartment;
(2) Small, two compartment;
(3) Large, metal, one compartment; and
(4) Large corrugated.
c. The standard small one and two compartment boxes are 11.25 centimeters (4 inches) high, 13.75 centimeters (5 inches) wide, and 42.5 centimeters (17 inches) deep.
d. The standard large, metal, one compartment box is 25 centimeters (10 inches) high, 27.5 centimeters (11 inches) wide, and 42.5 centimeters (17 inches) deep.
e. The standard large corrugated box is 20 centimeters (8 inches) high, 25 centimeters (10 inches) wide, and 40 centimeters (16 inches) deep.
14 FAH-1 H-313.3-3 Metal Storage Racks
The use of metal storage racks is an efficient way to obtain maximum stock accessibility and cube space utilization. You can acquire racks in light- to heavy-duty strength and in a variety of sizes. Racks can accommodate many different items of various sizes and weights, as shelves are adjustable. For high seismic risk locations, metal storage racks must be designed and anchored to resist earthquake forces. Plywood shelving is not authorized to be installed on either type of metal rack storage. Metal storage racks are of two types:
(1) Pallet racks: A storage rack can be used where pallet loads of material to be stored are not strong enough to stack one on another; are irregular in shape and not adaptable to pallet stacking; are too small for pallet storage (generally four pallet loads or less) and too large for bin storage; or where it is desirable to remove pallets from a lower tier without disturbing upper tiers. The size of the pallet to be used in warehouse operations must be determined prior to acquiring storage rack, as the dimensions and weight capacity of rack for pallet storage will be determined by the size of pallets used and weight of the pallet load to be stored. The rack can be obtained in the single pallet opening type or the multiple pallet opening type. Since it is constructed with adjustable beds or shelves, it provides the necessary flexibility for pallet load height adjustments without wasting cube space. The most suitable height of a pallet rack (i.e., number of pallet tiers) should be determined by load capacity of the floor, available floor-to-ceiling stacking height, average height of pallet load, and capacity and lifting range of forklift trucks. Aisles between racks must provide ample room for forklifts and other materials handling equipment to safely maneuver; and
(2) Cantilever racks: Because cantilever racks are long and open, and storage is not obstructed by the uprights, a cantilever rack can be used for storing odd shaped and sized items that are too long or bulky for standard pallet rack. It is an ideal rack for storing furniture (e.g., chairs, sofas, mattresses, box springs).
Example: pallet rack
Example: cross beam with safety clips
Example: pallet racks in use
Example: cantilevered racks
14 FAH-1 H-313.3-4 Pallets
a. General-use pallet:
(1) A pallet is a low portable platform constructed of wood, metal, plastic or fiberboard, built to specified dimensions, on which supplies are placed in unit loads to facilitate vertical stacking and handling by mechanical lifting equipment such as forklift trucks. Pallets of plastic or fiberboard are preferred because of their superior durability and resistance from infestation by wood destroying organisms. Some of the advantages of using pallets are movement of a greater number of pieces at one time, increase of speed when handling material, and higher stacking with less danger. One disadvantage is palletizing consumes more cube space than hand stacking;
(2) Normally, pallet dimensions are determined by the size, weight, shape, and packaging of the items to be palletized, type of materials handling equipment available, and to some extent the center-to-center column dimensions existing in the storage area. Two of the most popular general purpose pallet sizes in use today are the 1 meter x 1.2 meter (40 inches x 48 inches) and the 1.2 meter x 1.2 meter (48 inches x 48 inches) sizes. The 1 meter x 1.2 meter (40 inches x 48 inches) is recommended for storing general supplies;
(3) Flat pallets are either single-faced or double-faced. Single-faced pallets have one platform with stringers underneath on which the weight of the load rests. Double-faced pallets have two platforms separated by stringers. Pallets may afford two-way or four-way entry. The two-way entry pallet is constructed so the forks of the forklift truck may be inserted from either the front or rear of the pallet. The four-way pallet is constructed so the forks of the forklift truck may be inserted from any of the four sides; and
(4) Softwood, two-way, flush, and two-way wing pallets are intended for use in storage operations. Four-way (partial) wing is intended for use in storage, except where palletized material is contained by means of pallet support sets, and for shipment worldwide regardless of the mode of transportation.
b. Skid: The skid is the forerunner of the pallet. It is a wood or metal platform with two sled-type runners or legs. The skid differs from the pallet in that the construction design does not as a rule permit the tiering of loaded skids.
c. Box pallet: The box pallet is an adaptation of a standard double-faced pallet. A simple superstructure is built on the pallet to give the general appearance of a crate. It can be used for storage of odd sized or weak containers, which will not support a superimposed load and, therefore, cannot be stacked.
d. Pallet adapters:
(1) There are various types of pallet adapters available which, when used with conventional pallets, provide an economical means of storing various types of supplies that otherwise would require rack storage. One of the more commonly used adapters is the pallet stacking frame (also referred to as a support set); and
(2) The pallet stacking frame/support set is used to form a metal superstructure (box effect) when assembled onto a flat wood pallet, to allow for stacking of pallets containing odd-sized or weak containers which will not support a superimposed load and, therefore, cannot be stacked. These aids are recommended for use in lieu of the box pallet.
Example: pallet, box pallet, skid
Example: plastic 1 meter x 1.2 meter (40 inches x 48 inches) four way entry pallet
14 FAH-1 H-313.3-5 Mezzanine
a. Prefabricated mezzanines are commercially available for a variety of storage uses. A mezzanine can take advantage of the cubic space in storage areas where a pallet rack is not appropriate and stacking is not possible or not desired. A mezzanine may be used, over shelving or bin storage areas or over an area where appliances are stored. For high-risk locales, prefabricated mezzanines must be designed to resist earthquake forces.
b. The mezzanine load capacity must be determined by a qualified individual and posted on or in the vicinity of the mezzanine.
c. Mezzanines must be constructed of noncombustible materials and the design must be approved by OBO/OPS/FIRE/FPE prior to construction. The aggregate area of mezzanines within a room, other than those located in special-purpose industrial occupancies, must not exceed one-third the open area of the room in which the mezzanine are located. Additional exits are required from the mezzanine if the existing exits cannot be reached within 50 feet (15 meters) in non-sprinklered buildings and 100 feet (30 meters) in sprinklered buildings.
d. Install protective railings to prevent employee falls from elevated open sides on the mezzanine. Protective railings should be installed for elevations above 4 feet. The railing top rail should be 42 inches (1070 mm) high with a midrail in between the top rail and the floor. A removable section of railing or chain may be used where material is moved on or off the mezzanine. The protective barrier must be kept in place when material is not being actively moved.
Example: shelving mezzanine
14 FAH-1 H-313.4 Materials Handling Equipment
a. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in 29 CFR 1910.178 requires that:
(1) Employers must certify that operators of powered industrial trucks are trained and competent to operate the specific type of powered industrial truck safely they will be using, before the employee is assigned to operate a powered industrial truck;
(2) Employers must monitor operators and require refresher training at least every three years and when an operator is observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner, involved in an accident or near miss incident;
(3) The initial training must cover the 13 elements concerning the powered industrial truck and nine elements concerning the specific workplace. Reference 29 CFR 1910.178(L), Operator training, for the specific requirements and elements to be covered in the training;
(4) Powered industrial truck topics include:
(a) Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the operator will be authorized to operate;
(b) Differences between the truck and an automobile;
(c) Truck controls and instrumentation, where they are located, what they do, and how they work;
(d) Engine or motor operation;
(e) Steering and maneuvering;
(f) Visibility (including restrictions due to loading);
(g) Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and use limitations;
(h) Vehicle capacity;
(i) Vehicle stability;
(j) Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform;
(k) Refueling and or charging of batteries;
(l) Operating limitations; and
(m) Any other operating instructions, warnings, or precautions listed in the operator's manual for the types of vehicle that the employee is being trained to operate; and
(5) Specific workplace topics include:
(a) Surface conditions where the vehicle will be operated;
(b) Composition of loads to be carried and load stability;
(c) Load manipulation, stacking, and unstacking;
(d) Pedestrian traffic in areas where the vehicle will be operated;
(e) Narrow aisles and other restricted places where the vehicle will be operated;
(f) Hazardous (classified) locations where the vehicle will be operated;
(g) Ramps and other sloped surfaces that could affect the vehicle's stability;
(h) Closed environments and other areas where insufficient ventilation or poor vehicle maintenance could cause a buildup of carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust; and
(i) Other unique or potentially hazardous conditions in the workplace that could affect safe operation.
b. Any personal protective equipment that must be used when working with the equipment.
c. What to do in case of an emergency.
d. Use of concave and convex mirrors at warehouse intersections to prevent collisions.
e. Overseas posts must also ensure that any local requirements are met. Overseas posts should contact the POSHO and if additional assistance is needed contact OBO/OPS/SHEM.
f. In most warehouse operations, at least some materials handling equipment, either powered or non-powered, is necessary to move material from one operation (e.g., receiving to storage) to another, for loading or unloading carriers, and for stacking pallets. Some of the materials handling aids used in a general purpose warehouse are forklift truck, electric hand-pallet truck, hydraulic hand-pallet truck, narrow aisle reach and straddle truck, platform truck, utility hand truck, dolly, and dock bridge plate.
g. Power operated materials handling equipment must not be used in atmospheres containing hazardous materials, particularly explosive gases or volatile vapors, unless specifically designed and approved for use in these atmospheres.
14 FAH-1 H-313.4-1 Forklift Trucks
a. A forklift truck is a vehicle designed to pick up, carry, and stack unit loads of supplies and equipment. The trucks are equipped with telescopic masts that permit loads to be lifted beyond the height of the collapsed mast. They can be obtained in many different designs and models with a variety of rated capacities for various applications. The lifting or rated load capacity is usually defined as the maximum load that the truck is designed to safely transport or stack to a specified height. The rated capacities should never be exceeded. The lifting capacity with the mast fully extended is significantly less than at ground level. Overloading causes excessive wear of equipment and creates additional accident potential.
b. Electric-powered forklift trucks are equipped with solid rubber or semisolid tires for indoor use only. Gasoline-powered forklift trucks may be equipped with pneumatic tires for use in outdoor storage areas only.
c. Proper selection of forklift equipment requires a careful and thorough analysis of the work to be performed, including the work location. Also background information on the different types, makes, features, plus costs; and serviceability, so that the relative merits of each may be compared. For example, the size of the pallets used determines the length of forks required and the aisle width between storage racks determines the turning radius of the truck. If the volume is small, low-cost units such as walk type trucks should be considered. The physical characteristics of the warehouse facility are also important determining factors, especially in a warehouse that was not originally designed to accommodate forklift truck equipment. Where the floor load capacity and available aisle space are restricted, consideration should be given to trucks having minimum overall weight and a short turning radius, such as a narrow-aisle reach and straddle trucks, or a lightweight counterbalance forklift truck. Type and condition of floors must also be considered as small wheel forklift trucks, particularly straddle arm trucks, are generally not suitable where floors are irregular, rough, and heavily cracked.
14 FAH-1 H-313.4-1(A) Counterbalance Design Forklift
The conventional counterbalance truck carries the load ahead of the front axle and must have sufficient weight behind the front wheels to counterbalance more than the weight of the load lifted to the maximum lift height of the forks. Typical counterbalance forklift trucks may have a capacity of 4,000 to 6,000 pounds. Others available sizes include:
(1) A 900 kilograms (2,000 pounds) rated truck with a 2.5 meter (100 inches) lift: This is an electric-powered, light-duty forklift designed for use in areas where low overhead clearance requires the use of a truck with a low collapsed mast height. It can operate in a 2.85 meter (9 feet 6 inches) aisle with a 1 meter (40 inches) load length and is also suitable for truck loading or unloading activities;
(2) An electric-powered, 1,800 kilograms (4,000 pounds) rated truck with a 2.5 meter (100 inches) lift: It also has a low 1.7 meter (68 inches) collapsed mast and can operate in a 3 meter (10 feet) aisle with a 1 meter (40 inches) load length;
(3) A gasoline or electric-powered, 1,800 kilograms (4,000 pounds) rated truck with a 3.6 meter (144 inches) lift, and also with a higher collapsed 2.28 meter (91 inches) mast: It can operate in a 3 meter (10 feet) aisle with a 1 meter (40 inches) load length; and
(4) A gasoline or electric-powered, 2,700 kilogram (6,000 pounds) rated truck with a 3.18 meter (127 inches) lift. This is a basic heavy duty truck for indoor storage operations. It is used when additional lifting capacity is required to handle heavy loads. It can operate in a 3.45 meter (11 feet 6 inches) aisle with a 1 meter (40 inches) load length.
4,000-Pound Capacity Forklift Truck 6,000-Pound Capacity Forklift Truck
14 FAH-1 H-313.4-1(B) Straddle-Arm Design
a. The forks on the straddle forklift are located between two outriggers, or straddle arms, that extend forward in a plane at floor level, parallel to that of the forks, to straddle the pallet load. Because the straddle arms have contact with the floor, they support the elevated load in front of the front wheels directly below the load and therefore no counterweight is required. For this reason, the overall weight of the straddle type forklift is generally less than a conventional counterbalance truck having the same rated lifting capacity. It is more maneuverable than the standard forklift truck and can generally operate in 2.7 meter (9 feet) aisles. The straddle arm design is typically a stand up, ride type.
b. Within the straddle arm design there is also a reach type truck in which the forks travel forward to "reach out" for the load. Outriggers provide stability, but do not straddle the load. The forks move forward to engage the load, lift it, and then retract to the mast for travel. The reach truck is designed for operation in narrow aisles and congested areas.
Example: straddle arm truck plus reach out
14 FAH-1 H-313.4-1(C) Forklift Attachments
a. Fork extensions: If large pallets or large crates and boxes are sometimes handled, fork extensions could be used. The lower photograph shown in the below shows fork extensions installed on a forklift truck. Operators must be aware of and adjust for the reduction in load capacity plus changes in the center of mass that the fork extensions cause or the forklift can become unstable or even overturn.
b. Fork truck ram: The ram is a solid, pole-like device that can be attached to the forklift truck and used for handling coils of wire or cable, rolls of paper or carpet, or other cylindrical or open-center items. The upper image shown in the below example shows a ram for a forklift truck.
Example: Forklift truck attachments -(ram and fork extensions)
14 FAH-1 H-313.4-2 Pallet Type Handlift Truck
a. The pallet type hand lift truck is available in a hydraulic, hand operated, hand propelled model and an electric powered hand operated model. The truck is equipped with two load carrying forks that can be raised about 10 centimeters (4 inches) to carry palletized loads. It is used to move pallet loads relatively short distances that do not have to be stacked. It may also be used for the movement of pallet loads into carriers. It works well in conjunction with forklift trucks and can be operated where a forklift cannot, because of space limitations.
b. The electric powered model is used whenever the distance the load is to be moved, the size of the load, the presence of grades or inclines along the route, or other considerations require the use of powered equipment.
c. The hydraulic, hand operated model is used whenever the operating conditions do not require a hand truck with the special characteristics of the powered model. It may be used to advantage in the loading of carriers.
Examples: Pallet type handlift trucks (electric and hand operated)
14 FAH-1 H-313.4-3 Hand Trucks
Hand trucks are useful in all types of storage installations, particularly where mechanical equipment cannot be employed because of space limitations. Some models are capable of transporting several hundred pounds. Hand trucks are often preferable to, and more economical than, a piece of mechanical equipment for the movement of a single item. Examples of two of the more common hand trucks, the two-wheeled upright truck, and the four-wheeled platform truck, are shown and described here:
(1) Two-wheel upright truck: Consists of two handles, a platform on which the load rests, and a pair of wheels attached to the bottom of the framework. A blade extends at an angle from the bottom of the platform to retain the load. Some truck models include a carriage with casters in the back to help bear the load when moving. Normally this equipment is used with low-volume handling and bulky items such as large cartons. Since these trucks are hand operated, they should be used for short hauls only; and
(2) Platform truck: A four-wheeled platform that can be used to advantage for any operation involving short hauls. This truck is an important piece of materials handling equipment for use in small warehouse operations, particularly where the volume of merchandise handled is not sufficient to justify the use of pallets and mechanical equipment.
Examples: hand trucks
14 FAH-1 H-313.4-4 Dolly Truck
The dolly is a platform mounted on small rollers of casters, used for moving awkward and heavy items or pallet loads short distances. They are useful in a variety of warehouse and supply room operations for movements and unloading of materials. The example here shows various general-purpose dollies.
Examples: dolly trucks and carts
14 FAH-1 H-313.4-5 Loading Dock Equipment
There are many different types of equipment designed to bridge the gap between carrier vehicles and the loading dock to facilitate entry of materials handling equipment into trucks. The two basic types are the portable type and the fixed or permanently installed type. The most modern permanently installed type is the automatic self-leveling, push button control, powered equipment that may be obtained in almost any desired capacity. Listed below are types of loading-dock equipment:
(1) Dock bridge plate: A bridge plate is a metal plate used to span the gap and compensate for the difference in height between the truck and the loading dock. The bridge plate will allow the movement of materials handling equipment in and out of the truck. These plates are usually made of steel or magnesium and may be equipped with chains or recessed lifting hooks for pickup positioning by a forklift truck. The lightweight feature of the magnesium plate is a distinct advantage over heavier steel plates, particularly where plates are manually hauled for positioning;
(2) Mechanically operated dock leveler: The mechanically operated adjustable ramp is vertically adjustable to the height of truck floors so that movement of materials handling equipment in and out of the truck is permitted. These dock levelers are either permanently installed in the dock;
(3) Flip ramp dock board: A flip ramp dock board is a manually operated dock board mounted to the front of the loading dock; and
(4) Mobile vehicle loading ramp: A mobile vehicle loading ramp is a portable ramp used for loading and unloading with forklift trucks from ground level.
14 FAH-1 H-313.5 Pest Management
Warehouses and storage areas face threats from a number of common pests including rats, mice, and wood destroying organisms such as termites. Overseas posts are required to follow the Department's integrated pest management (IPM) program required by 15 FAM 957.2, which emphasizes prevention of pests by avoiding conditions that attract them. If pesticides will be used, the POSHO must confirm that there is a demonstrated need and authorize in writing a treatment with a Department authorized pesticide. Good pest control practices for warehouses include:
(1) Maintaining a gap of at least 6 inches between racks and walls to expose rodent runways;
(2) Remove the bottom shelf or elevate at least 18 inches to allow for inspection and cleaning;
(3) Avoiding use of plywood shelving;
(4) Using fiberboard or plastic rather than wood pallets;
(5) Removing all food wastes from the building at the end of each day;
(6) Practicing good housekeeping; and
(7) Continual monitoring for signs of pest activity.
14 FAH-1 H-313.6 Warehouse Safety and Mishaps
a. A mishap is any unplanned, unexpected, or undesirable event causing death, injury, disease or illness, or incident causing environmental contamination, material loss or property damage. Injuries and illnesses to employees, local nationals, visitors, contractors and family members are all reportable if they occur on Department owned or leased property, or during the conduct of U.S. Government business, including official motor vehicle operations.
b. All mishaps that occur on Department owned or leased property or during the conduct of U.S. Government business, including motor vehicle mishaps while operating a U.S. Government owned, rented, or leased vehicle or a private vehicle used for official business, must be reported electronically using the Mishap Reporting System (MRS) (reference 15 FAM 964.4). This includes mishaps involving other U.S. Government agencies operating under Chief of Mission authority at post. Mishaps are reported in order to document and analyze all overseas mishaps to identify trends and the greatest risks and develop effective intervention strategies focused on preventing the recurrence of similar mishaps. Every investigation conducted provides valuable insight into system and management weaknesses, and often has broader implications for how the Department conducts business.
c. Additionally, any damage to or destruction of any Department of State personal property must also be promptly reported to the accountable property officer (APO) who will complete the Form DS-132, Property Disposal Authorization and Survey Report, for State or Form AID-534-1, Personal Property Disposal Authorization and Report, for USAID and submit to the property management officer (PMO) for action or referral to the survey board for action in accordance with 14 FAM 416.5, Reporting Damaged, Missing, or Destroyed Property. For Department property damaged or destroyed that had an acquisition cost of less than $5,000 the PMO determines if an employee is financially liable for the damage or destroyed property. For Department property damaged or destroyed that had an acquisition cost of $5,000 or more the survey board determines if an employee is financially liable for the damage or destroyed property.
d. Overseas, the employee must report the mishap to his or her supervisor immediately, so the supervisor can immediately notify the post occupational safety and health officer (POSHO). This allows the POSHO to begin the investigation and notify SHEM within the required timeframe.
e. Per 15 FAM 930, the principal officer at each overseas post has overall responsibility for the safety and health of post employees. The deputy principal officer at each post is the designated post safety and occupational health administrator (referred to as the “administrator”) and is responsible for ensuring that post safety and health and environmental programs are funded, implemented, and functional in accordance with Department of State policies. The administrator must ensure that post implements a safety, health and environmental management program. The administrator appoints a post occupational safety and health officer (POSHO) to carry out day-to-day safety, occupational health, and environmental program management and implementation. The administrator ensures that safety and occupational health is a critical job element of the POSHO, supervisors, and other individuals having responsibilities in this area.
f. Warehouse supervisors are responsible for regular hazard inspections of their workplaces on a daily or weekly basis, depending on the nature of their work. No supervisor or worker should ever walk past a potentially hazardous situation without either correcting it or notifying higher authority about the situation.
g. The post occupational safety and health officer (POSHO) will inspect the warehouse twice a year.
h. In accordance with 15 FAM 934, supervisors are responsible for ensuring that:
(1) Employees are provided the correct tools and equipment to conduct their jobs safely;
(2) Employees are instructed in the proper use of these items;
(3) Applicable safety and health procedures are observed in the workplace; and
(4) Mishaps are reported promptly to the post occupational safety and health officer (POSHO). The human resources office (HR) is advised when workers compensation claims are required and the health unit is notified when injury or illness is involved.
i. The most common types of warehouse mishaps include back injuries, crush injuries, forklift mishaps, slips, trips and falls.
j. Following are some of the basic safety practices that should be observed in a general purpose warehouse operation. Additional information and guidance is available from the OBO/OPS/SHEM SharePoint site.
14 FAH-1 H-313.6-1 General Safety and Mishap Prevention
a. Overseas posts are required by 15 FAM 957.6 and 6 FAM 242 to provide personal protective equipment such as eye or face protection, safety shoes, etc, based on the hazard(s) of the task. Supervisors are responsible for ensuring employees wear the required personal protective equipment and are trained in the proper safe use.
b. Keep the edges of loading/unloading platforms clear of obstructions such as tools, warehouse trucks, bridge plates, and dunnage material used to fill spaces to prevent items from shifting during transport. Although this kind of equipment needs to be on the dock, it should be kept neatly stowed out of the way when not in use.
c. Eliminate tripping hazards such as telephone, light, and power cables. If a tripping hazard cannot be eliminated, mark it plainly.
d. Provide adequate lighting. Bulb covers or similar devices must be installed around any bare bulb lighting fixtures located at the height of seven feet or below or in locations where the bulbs are subject to physical damage.
e. Remove broken straps, exposed nails, or wire from containers.
f. Clean up any liquid spill immediately so long as it is safe to do so. If the spill is of a hazardous material such as a strong corrosive or toxic material, report it to the POSHO, who will ensure that proper procedures for cleanup of the material are followed.
g. Mark warehouse aisles with yellow lines to:
(1) Clearly differentiate pathways from storage areas;
(2) Delineate areas where materials and stock may not be stored (i.e., electrical panel access, battery charging areas, emergency eyewashes, egress ways); and
(3) Define material receiving and shipping areas.
i. Install column guards at the end of each storage rack to prevent damage if it is accidentally struck by material handling equipment.
j. When the warehouse is storing or using hazardous materials, ensure that the material safety data sheets (MSDS) or safety data sheets (SDS) for the material are available and that containers are properly labeled, and workers have received training to recognize and protect themselves from hazards.
l. Safety issues should be addressed to the Overseas Building Operations, Office of Safety, Health and Environmental Management (OBO/OPS/SHEM).
14 FAH-1 H-313.6-2 Materials Handling Equipment Safety and Mishap Prevention
a. From a safety standpoint, electric materials-handling equipment (MHE) should be used in warehouse operations whenever possible. If internal combustion MHE is used, the order of choice is diesel, propane, and gasoline. The use of internal combustion presents an issue with carbon monoxide. The carbon monoxide hazard's solution requires building ventilation.
b. Power operated industrial trucks must not be used in atmospheres containing hazardous materials, particularly explosive gases or volatile vapors, unless specifically designed and approved for use in these atmospheres. Propane-, diesel, and gasoline powered vehicles emit combustion by-products (particulates, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, etc.) that can pose health hazards to employees when used inside buildings, truck trailers, and other areas with inadequate ventilation. Adequate general ventilation must be provided to spaces where these vehicles are used inside to prevent accumulation of hazardous pollutants. OBO/OPS/SHEM should be contacted to assist post in determining if there is adequate ventilation or to evaluate any health risks from exposure to combustion by-products during warehouse operations. All equipment must be inspected prior to every use and maintained on a regular basis to assure safe operation.
c. Ensure that employees are properly trained in the operation, maintenance, and care of forklifts or other powered-materials handling equipment (battery charging, refueling, etc.) as required by OSHA 1910.178. Forklift operators must understand the load chart for the forklift(s) they operate.
d. Designate employees authorized to operate forklifts. Ensure operators have successfully completed training and are qualified to operate the specific forklifts, or other powered industrial trucks used at post. Contact SHEM if training is needed. Only trained and authorized personnel may be allowed to operate forklifts.
e. Prohibit the practice of employees climbing onto elevated racks to access materials and prohibit the lifting of personnel on the forklift without a protected platform.
f. Obtain a personnel lifting device (i.e., work platform cage) that can be secured to the forklift to safely access the upper shelves of the storage racks.
g. Do not drive forklift trucks with the forks elevated; have them just high enough to clear any obstructions (normally 10 centimeters/4 inches) above the floor.
h. When parked, the forks should be allowed to rest on the floor.
i. Check pallet loads before lifting to ensure proper loading and balance.
j. Tilt load back properly before hoisting.
k. Never lift with one fork.
l. Never add counterweights to the forklift truck to increase lifting capacity.
m. Never allow anyone to ride a load being handled by forklift truck.
n. Use proper-size (length) forks for each handling operation and slip-on extensions for extra-long loads.
o. Stacks should not be bumped or pushed with forklift trucks to straighten or move the stack.
p. Do not stand under loads being hoisted.
q. All forklifts must be equipped with seatbelts. Seatbelts are required to be used when the forklift is being operated.
r. No riders should be allowed on a forklift other than the operator.
s. Conduct and document forklift pre-use inspections each day or for every 10 hours of use. Forklifts with identified deficiencies must be removed from service until repaired.
14 FAH-1 H-313.6-3 Tool Safety
a. Inspect all tools before use. Report broken or defective tools immediately to the supervisor and do not use.
b. To prevent serious injury to eyes, hands, or face, replace chisels, hammer faces, and pliers that have burred, chipped, or badly worn working surfaces or edges.
c. Sharp edged tools should be stored in safe places.
d. Do not carry unshielded sharp edged tools in pockets.
e. Portable plates, used to bridge the space between truck doors and platforms, should be immobilized to prevent shifting or falling.
14 FAH-1 H-313.6-4 Ladder Safety
a. Ladders must be OSHA type I, IA or IIA or local equivalent.
b. Always inspect ladders before use. Do not use ladders with broken, splintered, or defective rungs, side rails, or feet. Damaged ladders should be reported to a supervisor and immediately tagged with "Do Not Use" or similar language.
c. Use the 4:1 rule when using extension or straight ladders. The base of the ladder must be placed one foot away from the vertical surface (wall, rack, etc.) for every four feet of elevation (i.e., the height where the top of the ladder will rest on the surface).
d. Procure a rolling stairway or rolling ladder to provide employees safe access to warehouse shelving.
14 FAH-1 H-313.6-5 Lifting and Carrying Safety
a. Size up the object to determine if it can be lifted and carried safely. Individuals may use the internet version of the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) lifting calculator to help identify appropriate weight limits to protect workers from excessive forces during lifting. The Oregon OSHA lifting calculator, suggested safe lifting limits are based on ideal conditions and is a modified version of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services lifting equation used to calculate the maximum safe weight for various lifting scenarios, including warehouse order filling functions.
b. Determine if nails, wire, or rough edges must be avoided or removed before picking up the object.
c. Wear gloves when necessary.
d. Ask for help when handling objects of excessive weight, bulk, or odd shape.
e. Get a good handhold. Wipe greasy or other slippery substances from hands or object to be lifted.
f. Be sure to have good footing, then lift with a smooth, even motion.
g. If a lift requires an awkward position, especially if it involves twisting the back or leaning to the side, get help with the lift.
h. If the view is blocked, when carrying a load, get help with the load.
i. When lifting from the floor or ground, keep the arms and back as straight as possible, bend the knees, and then lift with the leg muscles. Lifter should be able to see the ceiling throughout the lift.
j. When lifting from bench, table, shelf, or other elevated surface, bring the object as close to the body as possible to avoid an unbalanced position. Keep the back as straight as possible and lift with the leg muscles.
k. When carrying an object, keep the load close to the body and avoid carrying the load long distances without resting.
l. Ensure that there is a clear path between the locations that an item will be moved to and from.
14 FAH-1 H-313.6-6 Hazard Communications/Global Harmonization
Hazard Communication is a requirement to provide employees with quick access to information about the hazardous chemicals they are using or may encounter in the workplace. The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is now aligned with the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), which should improve the quality and consistency of hazard information in the workplace, particularly overseas. Refer to the OBO/OPS/SHEM SharePoint site for further information on hazard communication and training tools.
14 FAH-1 H-313.7 Security
a. Security is important in any warehousing operation. U.S. Government property must be both protected in proportion to the value and sensitivity involved, and in accordance with the Overseas Security Policy Board’s (OSPB) 12 FAH-6, OSPB Security Standards and Policy Handbook, regarding physical security standards for unclassified warehouses (storage only) in the current post-specific level of crime threat. Protection measures must be in place for both authorized and unauthorized entry. Other security measures as outlined below should be applied to the maximum extent feasible. Two of the most important protection measures are the prevention or detection of unauthorized entry and the control of authorized entry.
b. Domestic State only: Diplomatic Security’s Domestic Facilities Security Division (DS/CIS/DO) will review the security aspects of these facilities.
14 FAH-1 H-313.7-1 Preventing and/or Detecting Unauthorized Entry
a. Use measures such as fences, protective lighting, barriers, guards, and monitored alarm systems to prevent or detect unauthorized entry.
b. Post "No Trespassing" signs (in the prevailing local language(s), if necessary) so that they are visible from any approach on all fences, boundaries not enclosed by a fence, and at the boundaries of buildings not inside a security fence.
c. Provide adequate outside lighting of perimeter walls and/or fence lines.
d. Close dock doors at all times, unless trucks are loading or unloading. An employee must be within sight of any open door. Use locked sliding or rolling gates, grilles, or screens across openings in lieu of doors during a workday, provided they are sufficient to prevent access by outsiders into the facility. Visitors must not be able to enter without being seen. Control access to the warehouse to prevent entry by unauthorized personnel. Close and lock all outside bay and pedestrian doors through which unauthorized access can be made.
e. Before departure at the end of the day, assign a staff member the responsibility for inspecting to ensure that the all doors are secure.
f. The need for guards and interior and outside intrusion alarm systems will be determined on a case by case basis. Since guards are normally the most expensive security measure, they will be assigned when no other alternative is acceptable.
g. Domestic State only: Security information and guidance can be obtained from Diplomatic Security's Domestic Facilities Security Division (DS/CIS/DO). This office will provide advice on, and must approve, protection measures such as the above, locking systems (to include emergency release entry/exit systems), special doors, closed circuit television (CCTV), and automated access control systems.
h. Domestic State only: Diplomatic Security's Domestic Facilities Security Division (DS/CIS/DO) will approve and manage the procurement, installation, and maintenance of electronic security and physical security devices and the posting of guards or their assignment to patrol visits.
14 FAH-1 H-313.7-2 Controlling Authorized Entry
a. Direct the access of employees, delivery personnel, and other visitors through a central reception area. Post interior and exterior signs indicating where visitors are to report and points beyond which they are not permitted.
b. Visitors may be issued regular visitor badges and their names entered in a register showing the time of arrival, nature of visit, and time of departure. Visitors should be escorted while in the building. Employees should be required to confront and escort visitors to the warehouse manager's officer, if they are encountered unescorted or not wearing a badge.
c. Establish and maintain a record of all keys to the facility. In the record, include the names of all individuals having keys, their office and home phone numbers, and the area or door each key will open. Use a safe or a barlock file cabinet with a combination padlock to store Unicode keys.
d. Designate the exits through which all employees will be required to exit the building. If other than a central reception area is used for exiting, limit the exits to the minimum necessary to be observed by authorized personnel.
e. Require employees to obtain appropriately executed property passes if they wish to carry containers or packages, other than lunch boxes, from the facility (see 14 FAH-1 H-425).
f. Personnel will use the size and type of lunch boxes and other food containers brought into the facility consistent with the size and type normally used for that purpose.
g. Lunch room and other break areas will not be adjacent to any area used for storage of pilferable items.
h. Employees should obtain a Form DS-1953, Authorization for Removal of Property, if they need to carry a container or package from the facility.
i. Lunch room and other break areas should not be adjacent to any area used for the storage of pilferable items.
j. Domestic State only: Employees must wear identification badges unless a waiver is granted by Diplomatic Security's Domestic Facilities Security Division (DS/CIS/DO).
14 FAH-1 H-313.8 Fire Safety
14 FAH-1 H-313.8-1 General Fire Safety
Fire safety awareness is an extremely high priority and must be integrated into everyday warehouse operation. Warehouse personnel are generally fire-conscious to the same degree as that shown by the warehouse supervisor, and the supervisor degree of fire safety awareness is generally commensurate with that shown by management. In the event that a fire does occur, prompt and proper protective action minimizes the seriousness of the fire. Therefore, the accountable property officer (APO) will insure that adequate fire safety awareness exists in the warehouse (see 15 FAM 813 and/or contact Overseas Buildings Operations, Office of Fire Protection Division (OBO/OPS/FIRE)).
14 FAH-1 H-313.8-2 Emergency Action Plan
a. An emergency plan to ensure the safe and rapid evacuation of building occupants must be developed and all personnel thoroughly briefed on the plan. Personnel must immediately evacuate the building upon activation of the fire alarm system. The briefing should address:
(1) Firefighting equipment installed in the building and its exact location and intended use;
(2) How to identify and activate a fire alarm promptly on discovery of a fire;
(3) How to use the installed fire extinguishers;
(4) Each employee's participation in evacuation or firefighting activities; and
(5) How to evacuate the building.
b. All personnel must be properly trained, and warehouse personnel must rehearse the emergency action plan twice a year.
14 FAH-1 H-313.8-3 Emergency Exits
All exits to be used in an emergency must be clearly identified and are not to be obstructed by storage, machinery, locks or bolts at any time.
14 FAH-1 H-313.8-4 Fire Alarms
Preferably the building should be equipped with an automatic fire alarm system. The alarm system may be activated by smoke/fire detectors or the sprinkler system if the building is so equipped. The alarm system should also have pull stations. The employees should know how the system works, whether it is a local alarm system or if it is a central system, and the proper telephone procedure for reporting a fire.
14 FAH-1 H-313.8-5 Fire Extinguishers
If the area is used for paper storage, for example, the extinguisher should be at least a 10 pound Ansul ABC extinguisher for the potential fire threat. When flammables or combustible liquids are the fuel source, the extinguisher should be at least a 10 pound Ansul ABC extinguisher for the potential fire threat. There should be a fire extinguisher within 15 meters (50 feet) of every point in the warehouse. The distance is measured by travel route, not straight line. When fire extinguishers are positioned on the walls, a bright red circle or square bordered by a narrow white stripe must be used as a background. If they are positioned on posts or columns, a bright red band must be painted on the floor beneath the location of the extinguishers to indicate that access to the equipment must not be blocked. The columns must also be painted to indicate extinguisher locations. Refer to OBO/OPS/FIRE Fire Protection Guide for additional guidance.
14 FAH-1 H-313.8-6 Smoking Restrictions
Smoking is prohibited in and within 50 feet of any warehouse. Signs that read "No Smoking" must be posted in prohibited areas.
14 FAH-1 H-313.8-7 Storage Height Restrictions
a. When the building is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system, the stack clearance below the sprinkler deflectors must:
(1) Be 45 centimeters (18 inches) when stack heights do not exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet);
(2) Be 90 centimeters (3 feet/36 inches) when stack heights exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet); and
(3) Be 90 centimeters (3 feet/36 inches) when hazardous commodities are involved, regardless of stack height.
b. The stack clearance below joists, rafters, and beams must:
(1) Be 45 centimeters (18 inches) when stack heights do not exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet);
(2) Be 90 centimeters (3 feet/36 inches) when stack heights exceed 4.5 meters (15 feet); and
(3) Be 90 centimeters (3 feet/36 inches) in buildings without sprinkler systems, regardless of the stack height.
c. Around light or heating fixtures, a 45 centimeters (18 inches) clearance must be maintained.
d. Plywood shelving is not authorized to be used in rack storage.
14 FAH-1 H-313.8-8 Aisles
Aisles should be kept clear. Clear and easy access to all interior storage areas is essential for firefighting purposes.
14 FAH-1 H-313.9 Shared Facility
14 FAH-1 H-313.9-1 General Shared Facility
If the warehouse belongs primarily to the Department but is shared by other agencies that maintain stock inventories or have property stored, the custodial responsibilities generally rest with the Department. That is, the care and safekeeping of the property should be the responsibility of the Department accountable property officer (APO), just as is the responsibility for the Department's property.
14 FAH-1 H-313.9-2 Activities to Address in the ICASS Agreement
a. For posts overseas an agreement under the International Cooperative Administrative Support Services (ICASS) program, should be reached between State and each of the other agencies with regard to the responsibilities of each agency. All warehouse activities should be addressed in the agreement and it should be signed by officials of all agencies involved. Each ICASS agreement should be reviewed periodically, but not less than every three years, and the review documented in the files.
b. Space allocation: Space control and allocation should be the responsibility of the Department. Other agency requests for storage space should be submitted in writing to the accountable property officer (APO). If the agreement involves property to be stored temporarily, the agreement should include the approximate storage time required.
c. Receiving and inspection: Inspecting, tallying, and preparing receiving reports for shipments consigned to the warehouse should be the responsibility of the Department. The Department will be responsible for providing other agencies with copies of receiving reports in a timely manner.
d. Storage: Proper care and protection of property being stored in the warehouse should be the responsibility of the Department. To avoid unnecessary storing of temporarily stored property, the Department should provide each agency with a semi-annual report of all property being held beyond the agreed upon storage period and request that the agency provide the Department with a justification for continued storage or with disposition instructions.
e. Security: It should be the Department's responsibility to insure that classified, sensitive, and pilferable property receives proper handling and storage in accordance with Department regulation.
14 FAH-1 H-313.9-3 Activities to Address in a Memorandum of Agreement
a. In a facility where an organization has custodial responsibilities and where other organizations or program offices also maintain material, an agreement should be reached with regard to the responsibilities of each organization. This may be accomplished by a memorandum of agreement (MOA). All facility activities should be addressed and the MOA signed by all parties concerned. The MOA should be reviewed by all parties every three years (unless intervening changes dictate an earlier review) and the review documented in the files.
b. The memorandum of agreement should address the responsibilities and services to be provided by the custodial organization. Some of the areas to be addressed are:
(1) Space control and allocation should be the responsibility of the custodial organization. Requirements for storage space for Departmental organizations should be submitted in writing to the warehouse manager;
(2) If disposition of in-transit property is not made within thirty days of receipt by the facility, the office having ordered the property should be requested to provide the warehouse manager with a memorandum containing a projected date for disposition;
(3) The warehouse manager should provide offices owning property, which is temporarily being held, with a semiannual report of all such storage being held beyond the agreed upon holding time. The owning office should then provide the warehouse manager with disposition instructions or a justification requesting continued storage;
(4) The inspection and preparation of receiving reports for shipments consigned to the facility and providing ordering activities with receiving reports in a timely manner is generally the responsibility of the custodial organization; and
(5) The care and protection, physical handling, movement, storage, warehousing, and stock selection of material are the responsibility of the custodial organization.
14 FAH-1 H-314 through H-319 UNASSIGNED